International Marketing at Universität Passau

Flashcards and summaries for International Marketing at the Universität Passau

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Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

Overview of Classical Trade Theories

Foreign trade arises because countries specialize in the production of goods where they have an absolute cost advantage. These goods are exported to the countries which import goods they can not produce without incurring a cost disadvantage.

describes the 

Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

Overview of Classical Trade Theories 

Foreign trade arises because countries specialize in the production of goods where they have a comparative cost advantage and import goods they can not produce without incurring a cost disadvantage.

describes the 


Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

Overview of Classical Trade Theories


A country that is relatively abundant in a factor of production should export goods that use a lot of that factor in the production process and import other goods.

describes the 


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Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

What are the major differences between national and international marketing?

Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

Corruption is heavily effecting our business in many countries.
Is this true or false?

Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

What are the major characteristics of emerging markets?

Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

Some statistics on the important emerging markets 

What the the 4 dominating emerging Markets called BRIC? And what are the next countries that move, called the „Next Eleven“?
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Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

What is the definition of Culture? (Hofestrede and Minkov)

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What are the six elements of culture?

Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

Please describe the „Onion Model of Culture“. What is inside the Onion and what is outside? 

Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

What are the four Cultural Typologies?
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Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

Overview of Classical Trade Theories 

„Foreign trade arises because countries want to increase their wealth at the expense of other countries: “The ordinary means to increase our wealth and treasure is by foreign trade, wherein we must ever observe this rule: to sell more to strangers yearly than we consume of theirs in value.” (Thomas Mun, 16th century)

describes the


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Exemplary flashcards for International Marketing at the Universität Passau on StudySmarter:

International Marketing

Overview of Classical Trade Theories

Foreign trade arises because countries specialize in the production of goods where they have an absolute cost advantage. These goods are exported to the countries which import goods they can not produce without incurring a cost disadvantage.

describes the 

Theory of Absolute (Cost) Advantage (Smith)

International Marketing

Overview of Classical Trade Theories 

Foreign trade arises because countries specialize in the production of goods where they have a comparative cost advantage and import goods they can not produce without incurring a cost disadvantage.

describes the 


Theory of Comparative (Cost) Advantage (Ricardo)

International Marketing

Overview of Classical Trade Theories


A country that is relatively abundant in a factor of production should export goods that use a lot of that factor in the production process and import other goods.

describes the 


Factor Proportions Trade Theory (Heckscher/Ohlin)

International Marketing

What are the major differences between national and international marketing?
  • more need for information
  • higher risk
  • coordination requirements 
  • higher task complexity 

-> because of these particularities, international marketing is more complex than marketing in a national context 

International Marketing

Corruption is heavily effecting our business in many countries.
Is this true or false?
True

International Marketing

What are the major characteristics of emerging markets?
  • Low per capita incomes but rapid pace of economic development  
  • High income inequalities  
  • High rates of emigration to developed world
  • Youthful and growing populations  
  • Weak and highly variable infrastructure  
  • Underdeveloped technology  
  • Weak distribution channels and media infrastructure
  • Growing middle class
  • high growing GDP
-> China and other emerging markets will account 75% of the world´s total growth in the next two decades (these emerging markets will represent most parts of the total economic growth the next years)

International Marketing

Some statistics on the important emerging markets 

What the the 4 dominating emerging Markets called BRIC? And what are the next countries that move, called the „Next Eleven“?
BRIC: Brazil, Russia, India, China
“Next Eleven“: Bangladesh, Eqypt, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, Vietnam 

International Marketing

What is the definition of Culture? (Hofestrede and Minkov)
„Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguished the members of one group or category from those of another“

International Marketing

What are the six elements of culture?
  • Material life
  • Language
  • Social interactions
  • Aesthetics
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Value

International Marketing

Please describe the „Onion Model of Culture“. What is inside the Onion and what is outside? 
  • Values are behavioral standards of conduct for
    what is “right” as opposed to what is “wrong”.
    Values determine: Behavior of individuals and Interaction between individuals
  • Rituals are collective activities that are carried
    out for their own sake  
  • Heroes are persons (real or imaginary) who
    possess characteristics which are highly valued  
  • Symbols are words, gestures, pictures, or
    objects that carry a particular meaning which is
    only recognized by those who share the culture
    = observable reality of culture
  • The inner layers determine the outer layers of the model
  • Values are an essential element of culture

Onion from inside to outside: Values, Rituals, Heroes, Symbols 

International Marketing

What are the four Cultural Typologies?
  • Hofstede (1994)
  • Trompenaars (1996)
  • Hall (1989)
  • GLOBE-Study

International Marketing

Overview of Classical Trade Theories 

„Foreign trade arises because countries want to increase their wealth at the expense of other countries: “The ordinary means to increase our wealth and treasure is by foreign trade, wherein we must ever observe this rule: to sell more to strangers yearly than we consume of theirs in value.” (Thomas Mun, 16th century)

describes the


Mercantilism (Mun)

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