Survey at Universität Osnabrück

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Survey at the Universität Osnabrück

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

What is meant by the Great Chain of Being? How is it relevant to the study of Shakespearean theatre?

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

Which are the main aspects of Sir Philip Sydney's poetry?

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

Who were the Puritans? What were their basic principles?

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

What are the distinguishing aspects of Shakespeare's sonnets?

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

What do you understand by the term "metaphysical poetry"? Discuss its main features.

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

What were the significant features of the literature of the early seventeenth century?

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

How did the English Civil War affect the history of English literature?

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

Explain the main features of Shakespearean comedies.

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

How can you explain the rise of drama in the Elizabethan age? Give reasons.

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What is the theory of humours? Explain.

Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

State two significant features of the English Renaissance.

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Mention main themes in Hamlet.

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Exemplary flashcards for Survey at the Universität Osnabrück on StudySmarter:

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What is meant by the Great Chain of Being? How is it relevant to the study of Shakespearean theatre?

This was a worldview that had dominated the medieval age, namely the understanding of the world as an interconnected, hierarchical order were the "Great Chain of Being" links everything from stones, plants, animals, to humans, angels and God. It was believed that God created the universe in which each being had its rightful place. In Shakespeare's plays, this is a recurring theme because they are often about an imbalance of the natural order ororder vs. disorder (e.g. quarrels between lovers, illegitimately usurped power) so thatharmony needs to be reestablished (e.g. through rightful heirs restored, a sanctified marriage, family reunion etc.).

Survey

Which are the main aspects of Sir Philip Sydney's poetry?

His poems, e.g. Aristophel and Stella were about themes like love torn between reason or truth vs. desire. In his poetry, he wrote about the psychological and ethical consequences of physical love and advocated sincerity instead of artifice and rhetoric. He often usedcolloquial language and self-irony and his poetry was one of aesthetic self-awarenesswhere poetry was portrayed as truth.

Survey

Who were the Puritans? What were their basic principles?

They were radical reformists who demanded a reformation of English religious practicesand doctrines after the Reformation. They wanted to get rid of all remnants of Catholic liturgical practices and symbols. While the 'reformist' Puritans wanted to renew and revive the Anglican Church from within, the 'separatists' chose to completely separate from it. After the Restoration, they were known as the Dissenters. For the Puritans, the Bible and thescriptures were the only legitimate foundation of spiritual authority (not the King!) and the essential source of religious meaning. They considered public entertainment (esp. drama /theatre) to be sinful.

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What are the distinguishing aspects of Shakespeare's sonnets?

- His sonnets were arranged in thematic groups with a distinct cast of characters (e.g. the "dark lady", the young man, the rival poet). 

- His poetic personas were less idealized than in the typical Renaissance sonnet. 

- Most of his sonnets follow one basic rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg

- in the closing couplet, there is usually a building tension or a 'twist' of the argument. 

- He wrote about love, beauty, politics, mortality and fate.

Survey

What do you understand by the term "metaphysical poetry"? Discuss its main features.

This seventeenth century poetry is marked by its complicated tropes and figures, phrasedlike intellectual arguments (conceits). These metaphysical conceits are logical argumentsheld together by an inventive comparison or a central organizing trope, such as anextended metaphor or an ingenious leitmotif.
Metaphysical poetry often used paradoxical imagery from philosophy, art, the occult, and religion, but also from non-poetic realms like anatomy or astronomy. It was the poetic exploration of conscience, science and philosophy and could be described as 'borderline poetry'. Intellectual revelation and knowledge were pictured as rapture and pleasure (bliss). Its language was controlled and carefully constructed and became a medium of aesthetic reason, a language of "both words and sense".

Survey

What were the significant features of the literature of the early seventeenth century?

The King James Bible from 1611, the first authorized translation of the Bible, had a huge impact on the English language and literature. It was an age of learning, with writings about empiricist natural philosophy and scientific methodology where the authors wrote aboutquestions of law, religion, state and politics (e.g. F. Bacon, T.Hobbes, J. Locke). Thedebates on a state-censorship on literature and arts influenced the literature, and the new discoveries and developments in philosophy and science are reflected in the so-calledmetaphysical poetry which was dominant at that time. John Donne and Andrew Marvellwere among the most prominent representatives.

Survey

How did the English Civil War affect the history of English literature?

Being a time of strife and struggle, literature was frequently about the relation between individual freedom and the power or legitimacy of the state, and about individual rights orwhich rights are more important than others. Hobbes' Leviathan, for instance, is an expression of the people's wish for law and order and for an end of the chaos. Since Parliament closed down the theatres in 1642 and put a state censorship on arts and literature, most of the literature reflecting the issues of that time appeared after the war. Since the Civil War was fought between the Puritan Roundheads and the Royalist Cavaliers, lots of the literature during that time and afterwards was about religion or written by Puritans, for example John Milton's epic poetry of faith. The conflict between Puritans and Royalistswas continued and articulated in literature well into the Interregnum and the Restoration era.

Survey

Explain the main features of Shakespearean comedies.

They all followed the guiding principle of "delightful teaching", i.e. they were both entertaining and instructive. The humour was moral, righteous and critiquing (like aplayful test on moral norms), but his plays always maintained the present order and never ridiculed respected people like the Queen, for example. They were often complex, withintertwined plots, main and subplots, as well as a synthesis of folk and classical models. They were different from his contemporary plays in that there was a realistic negotiation of love instead of idealistic sublimation. He often used sexual humour like sexual puns or bawdy jokes so that his comedies appealed to all social classes. Common themes wereappearance vs. reality, mistaken or confused identity, the use of masks and disguises,foolery of desire, the battle of the sexes, young lovers struggling, marriage, separation,and reunification of lovers/families.

Survey

How can you explain the rise of drama in the Elizabethan age? Give reasons.

This age was a time of relative peace and prosperity and an active court patronage of theatre, arts and literature. Thus, the opening of public theatres was possible. Due to the weakening of the Catholic Church, there was a loosening of religious and moral stricturesand drama became a popular art form of public entertainment. Additionally, the context ofexploration, trade and colonization allowed for a great thematic diversity and thus a wide range of plays and genres.

Survey

What is the theory of humours? Explain.

- This theory assumed that there were four basic temperaments/personality types based on the four substances in the body

    - namely the melancholic type (reflective, based on black bile) 

    - the choleric type (aggressive, based on yellow bile), 

    - the phlegmatic type (dull, based on phlegm) 

    - and the sanguine type (cheerful, based on blood). 

- In medicine, it was believed that all diseases resulted from either a lack or excess of one of these substances 

- this theory also influenced the characterization in Elizabethan drama because it allowed for more complex characters whose conflict usually also resulted from a lack or excess of a certain character trait.

Survey

State two significant features of the English Renaissance.

- This period is characterized by a rebirth of Classical learning, arts and literature, i.e. the return to Greco-Roman Classics, Classical translations and scholarship.
- The influence of the Roman Catholic Church was weakening because of the European Reformation, i.e. philosophy and rational debate were preferred to narrow ecclesiastical learning.

- The developing Humanism, the idea of the Universal Man and the cultural change (commercial capitalism and (inter)continental trade) had a great impact on all areas of life.

Survey

Mention main themes in Hamlet.

It is apparently a revenge tragedy but a complex, ambivalent, and intriguing play. Its main themes are human frailty and fate / death, the characters' internal struggle and theirexternal compulsions, legitimate vs. usurped power, personal ambition vs. theestablished order, politics vs. morality, conventional morality vs. individual ethics, loss of moral perspective and reason, truth vs. appearance or truth as appearance, deception, pretence, and the mask and disguise of Hamlet’s feigned madness, espionage, and theintrigue in the royal family.

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