Pharmako at Universität Münster

Flashcards and summaries for Pharmako at the Universität Münster

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Pharmako at the Universität Münster

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Kurzwirksame Insuline

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Sulfonylharnstoffe 

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Glinide
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GLP-1-Rezeptor Agonisten

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DPP-4 Hemmer

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Biguanide

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Glitazone
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α-Glucosidasehemmer

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SGLT-2 Inhibitoren

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Verzögertes Humaninsulin

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Spannungskopfschmerz
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Langwirksame Insuline

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Exemplary flashcards for Pharmako at the Universität Münster on StudySmarter:

Pharmako

Kurzwirksame Insuline
Lispro -> Tausch von Lys und Pro and Position B28 und B29

Aspart -> Austausch von ProB28 durch Asp 

Glulisin -> Austausch von AsnB3 zu Lys + LysB29 zu Glu 

- keine stabilen Hexamere 

- Hypoglykämie-Risiko

-> Typ 1 DM 

Pharmako

Sulfonylharnstoffe 
= K(ATP)-Kanal-Inhibitoren
-> Sekretion von Insulin fördernd (insulinotrop)

- oral 

Glibenclamid
Glimepirid
Gliclazid
Tolbutamid (obsolet)

- Hypoglykämie-Risiko

-> Typ 2 DM

Pharmako

Glinide
= K(ATP)-Kanal-Inhibitoren
-> Sekretion von Insulin fördernd (insulinotrop)

- oral 

Repaglinid (Benzoesäure-Derivat)
Nateglinid (Phenylalanin-Derivat)

- schneller Wirkeintritt + kürzere Wirkdauer (vgl. Sulfonylharnstoffe)
- Hypoglykämie-Risiko

-> Typ 2 DM 

Pharmako

GLP-1-Rezeptor Agonisten

= Inkretine
-> Insulinsekretion in Abhängigkeit von der Nahrungsaufnahme

GLP-1 = Glucagon-ähnliches Peptid 1

-> Glutide

- oral

Exanetid
Liraglutid (+ Degludec) -> auch bei Adipositas
Dulaglutid
Lixisenatid (+ Glargin)
Albiglutid

oral: Rybelsus
= Semaglutid + SNAC (sodiu-N-hydroxybenzoy-amino-caprylat)

-> Typ 2 DM

Pharmako

DPP-4 Hemmer
= Inkretine
-> Insulinsekretion in Abhängigkeit von der Nahrungsaufnahme

- DPP-4 = Dipeptidyl-Peptidase 4 (GLP-1-Abbau)

-> Gliptine

- oral 

Sitagliptin (auch mit Ertugliflozin)
Saxagliptin
Vildagliptin
Linagliptin (auch mit Empagliflozin)
Alogliptin

- fixe Kombinationen mit Metformin

-> Typ 2 DM 

Pharmako

Biguanide
= AMPK-Aktivatoren 
-> Insulin-Wirkung verbessernd

- oral

Metformin 

- Laktatazidose-Risiko
-> Typ 2 DM 1. Wahl 
-> 2. Wahl bei Schwangerschafts-Diabetes

Pharmako

Glitazone
= PPAR-Agonisten 
-> Insulin-Wirkung verbessernd

- PPARγ = Peroxisomen-Proliferator aktivierter Faktor 

- oral 

Pioglitazon

- Gewichtszunahme-Risiko
-> Typ 2 DM (Neueinstellung nicht empfohlen)

Pharmako

α-Glucosidasehemmer
= Inhibitoren der Glucoseaufnahme
-> Glucose-Resorption verzögert 

- oral

Acarbose
Miglitol

-> Typ 2 DM 

Pharmako

SGLT-2 Inhibitoren
= Inhibitoren der renalen Resorption 
-> Glucose-Ausscheidung erhöht

- SGLT-2 = sodium dependent glucose transporter 2

-> Gliflozine 

- oral 

Dapagliflozin (auch mit Metformin) 
Empagliflozin
Ertugliflozin (+ Sitagliptin)

- Elektrolytverschiebungen-Risiko

-> Typ 2 DM 

Pharmako

Verzögertes Humaninsulin
NPH-Insulin

NPH = Neutrales Protamin Hagedorn (Eiweiß)
- Insuman Basal (bspw.) 
-> Abdeckung des nahrungsunabhängigen Grundbedarfs

-> Typ 1 DM 

Pharmako

Spannungskopfschmerz
Therapie:
- NSAR (ASS, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Metamizol)
- Pfefferminzöl
- Kombinationen mit Coffein
-> episodische Form 

Prophylaxe:
- TZAs -> Amitriptylin (Goldstandard), Imipramin 
- Antiepileptika -> Valproat, Topiramat (wenige Studien) 
- Muskelrelaxanz -> Tizanidin
- Antidepressiva (Mirtazapin, Venlafaxin) 
-> chronische Form 

nicht-medikamentös:
- Akupunktur
- Biofeedback

Pharmako

Langwirksame Insuline
Detemir -> C14-Fettsäure (Myristinsäure) anstelle ThrB30
- höhere Bindung an Albumin 

Glargin -> AsnA21 zu Gly + zusätzlich ArgB31 und B32
- löslich bei pH 4 = subkutane Präzipitate

Degludec -> Deletion von ThrB30 + C16-Fettsäure an LysB29 via γ-Glutaminsäure
- Multihexamere

- Hypoglykämie-Risiko

-> Typ 1 DM 

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