Linguistics at Universität Münster

Flashcards and summaries for Linguistics at the Universität Münster

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maximum onset principle

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phone

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Standard pronunciations 

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two levels of description of phonology

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phoneme 

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prescriptive vs descriptive approach

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branches of phonetics

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Exemplary flashcards for Linguistics at the Universität Münster on StudySmarter:

Phonetics

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Vowels

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English linguistics vs general linguistics

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Symbolic vs motivated signs

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Phonology

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Exemplary flashcards for Linguistics at the Universität Münster on StudySmarter:

Linguistics

maximum onset principle

move as many consonants as possible to the onset position of the second syllable

Linguistics

phone

any individual sound

Linguistics

Standard pronunciations 

  • RP= Received Pronunciation
  • GA= General American 

Linguistics

two levels of description of phonology

1)segmental phonology: the description of speech sounds in terms of speech segments (i.e. on the level of individual sounds)

2)suprasegmental phonology: the description of speech sounds in terms of prosodic features like intonation and stress (i.e. level of prosody)

Linguistics

phoneme 

smallest linguistic unit that can distinguish meaning

Linguistics

prescriptive vs descriptive approach

  • language with regard to rules and norms, judging linguistic forms as right or wrong = prescriptive approach
  • language actually used at a given time, observe linguistic forms without value judgement = descriptive approach

Linguistics

branches of phonetics

  • articulatory phonetics: production of speech sounds
  • acoustic phonetics: physical properties of speech sounds
  • auditory phonetics: perception of speech sounds

Linguistics

Phonetics

the study of the articulation and reception of human speech sounds; not restricted to a particular language

Linguistics

Vowels

  • no obstruction of the air stream, vocal folds vibrate
  •  monophthongs (vowel sounds which consist of one element) and diphthongs (two elements)
  • the criteria for the phonetic description of vowels:
    • length: long vs. short/ tense vs. lax
    • openness: open/ low, mid, or close(d)/ high
    • position/part of tongue: front, central, or back
    • roundedness: roundedvs. unrounded(→ lips)

Linguistics

English linguistics vs general linguistics

  • forms and functions of individual human languages= English linguistics
  • forms and functions of human language in general = general linguistics

Linguistics

Symbolic vs motivated signs

  • Vast majority of linguistics signs are symbolic = arbitrary
  • some are motivated = onomatopoeia

Linguistics

Phonology

the study of sounds as they operate in the system of a specific language

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