Applied Grammar II at Universität Marburg

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Amplifiers

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Anti-progressive Verbs

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Aspect

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Attitude Adverbials

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Backshift

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Backshift tense changes

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Bounded Verbs

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Central modals - primary forms

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Central modals

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Central modals - secondary forms

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Central modals - tense

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Alternative ways to express conditionals

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Exemplary flashcards for Applied Grammar II at the Universität Marburg on StudySmarter:

Applied Grammar II

Amplifiers


Amplifiers are words which strengthen the content of the clause. They are usually adverbs of extent/degree.

Example:
  • I totally disagree with you. 



Applied Grammar II

Anti-progressive Verbs

Definition 1


Some categories of verbs tend to be anti-progressive:
  • Verbs of inert perception (feel, smell) 
  • Verbs of intert cognition (know, believe)
  • Verbs of attitude (love, hate)
  • State verbs of having and being. 


Definition 2


Future progressive & future perfect progressive verb phrases tend to be anti-passive.
Intransitive verbs and stative verbs also also infrequent in the passive voice. 


Applied Grammar II

Aspect


There are three aspects:
  1. perfect
  2. progressive
  3. perfect progressive



Applied Grammar II

Attitude Adverbials


Attitude adverbials express the speakers attitude towards a proposition.
Attitude adverbials can often be re-phrased using that-clauses with adjectives.

Example:
Thankfully, everything I studied came up on the test.

I am thankful that every thing I studied came up on the test. 



Applied Grammar II

Backshift


Backshift is a phenomenon triggered by past tense reporting verbs. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, all subsequent verb phrases undergo a *backshift (move back in time) and it triggers changes in things like pronouns and place and time adverbials.

Example:
"We are going to watch a movie on Friday night."
Ella said that were going to watch a movie on Friday night.

* There are exceptions to this tendency. If the statement is believed to still be true at the moment of reporting there is no backshift. Here's an example:
Aoife: "I hate sand."
Aoife said she hates sand. (No backshift because it's still true.)



Applied Grammar II

Backshift tense changes

Past tense reporting trigger the following changes:

present simple --> past simple
present progressive --> past progressive
present perfect --> past perfect
present perfect progressive --> past perfect progressive

primary modal forms --> secondary modal forms

Applied Grammar II

Bounded Verbs


Bounded verbs have a built-in idea of completeness.

They walked home.

Walked is bounded in this instance because the action obviously ended when they got home.

*Be careful lots of verbs can be both bounded/unbounded depending on their context. 



Applied Grammar II

Central modals - primary forms


The primary forms of the central modals are:
  1. can
  2. may 
  3. shall 
  4. will
  5. must*
These forms of the verbs tend to co-occur with present or future time.

*must has only one form 



Applied Grammar II

Central modals

Definition 1


There are nine central modals:
  1. can
  2. could
  3. will 
  4. would
  5. shall
  6. should
  7. may
  8. might
  9. must


Definition 2


Modal verb phrases are constructed as follows:

central modal + infinitive

Examples:
  1. can do
  2. could read
  3. will be 
Central modals precede the subject in yes/no questions and the negator not.

Examples:

May I borrow your pen?
You may not borrow my pen!

Could you help me?
I will not help you!



Applied Grammar II

Central modals - secondary forms


The secondary forms of the central modals are:
  1. could
  2. might
  3. should 
  4. would
  5. had to*
These forms of the central modals tend to co-occur with past time meanings.

* The meaning of must in the past is had to.



Applied Grammar II

Central modals - tense

Central modals (and some semi-modals) are never marked for tense instead modals have primary and secondary forms which are associated with past, present or future time meanings (semantic categories).

Applied Grammar II

Alternative ways to express conditionals

There are many ways to introduce conditional clauses that do not include the use of an if-clause but instead make use of other adverbial clauses to introduce a conditional clause. These are sometimes called hidden conditionals.


Here are some examples:

  • even if
  • on (the) condition that
  • unless*
  • in case
  • whether (or not)
  • what if
  • not ... unless
  • as long as 
  • but for + noun phrase
  • otherwise
  • provided that
  • given that
  • assuming that
  • granted that

*Negative adverbials in the initial position trigger inversion! 

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