Softwaretechnik at Universität Mannheim

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Softwaretechnik at the Universität Mannheim

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What is Sotfware?

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What is a process model?

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Waterfall model characteristics

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I & I Development Characteristics    

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Functional Requirements 

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Non-functional requirements

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Software Requirements Specification

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Use Case Goal Levels

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Use Case Formality Types 

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Domain Models

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Attributes

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System Sequence Diagrams

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Softwaretechnik

What is Sotfware?

  • of computer programs, procedures, rules, associated documentation and data
  • Software development is thus more than the development of programs

Softwaretechnik

What is a process model?

 A software process model (“Vorgehensmodell”) is an abstract representation of a software development process 

  • it is a description of a process from some particular perspective 
  • it recommends guidelines for – 
    • which activities are to be carried out 
    • how and in what order they are to be carried out 
    • i.e. phases and milestones are defined 
    • who has to carry out what 
    • i.e. roles and responsibilities are determined 
    • which products are to be built until when 
    • i.e. artifacts, documents, and other work results 
    • which techniques and tools are to be used 

Softwaretechnik

Waterfall model characteristics

Advantages 

  • defines a sequence of concrete activities 
  • with complete, well-defined products (inputs and outputs) 
  • simple process model for managers 

Disadvantages 

  • inflexible partitioning of the project into distinct stages 
  • insensitive to changing customer requirements 
  •  high-risk due to “big bang” integration

 Applicability 

  •  only feasible when the requirements are well-understood 
  •  must nevertheless include extensive feedback cycles 
  •  requires lots of experience with development techniques /  tools 
  • there are strong indications that the waterfall is not well suited for complex and unprecedented projects 

Softwaretechnik

I & I Development Characteristics    

Advantages 

  • early rather than late attention for high risks 
  • technical, requirements, objectives, usability and so forth 
  • early visible progress and early feedback 
  •  managed complexity 
  •  the team is not overwhelmed by “analysis paralysis” 
  • the learning within an iteration can be methodically used to improve the development process itself, iteration by iteration

 Disadvantages 

  • additional overhead involved in planning and integration 
  • dedicated configuration management also required for documents
  •  refactoring may be needed as additional requirements are addressed
  •  cost estimation is claimed to be harder 

Softwaretechnik

Functional Requirements 

  1. describes services the system should provide
    • how the system should react to particular inputs 
    • how the system should behave in particular situations 
  2. depend on the type of software 
  3. Examples
    • the user shall be able to search all of the databases or a selected subset
    • the system shall provide apppriate viewers for the user to read documents in the document store

Softwaretechnik

Non-functional requirements

constraints on the services or functions offered by a system such as – 

  • timing constraints 
  • constraints on the development process, standards, etc. 

process requirements may also be specified mandating a particular – 

  •  environment 
  • programming language 
  •  development method 

examples 

  •  the system development process and deliverable documents shall conform to the process and deliverables defined in XYZCoSP-STAN-95 
  •  the system shall respond to 99% of all requests within 0.5 seconds 


Softwaretechnik

Software Requirements Specification

  • The software requirements specification is both the starting point and end point for a software development project 
  •  probably the most important artifact in a project
  •  ideally it should describe the requirements that the system must fulfill in a way that is –        1. clear and concise (i.e. correct) 

2. unambiguous 

3. consistent

4. complete

5. verifiable 

6. prioritized 

7. traceable 

Softwaretechnik

Use Case Goal Levels

(High-Level) Summary

  • glues together a number of user goal and subfunction use cases
    • e.g. handle a claim wihtin an insurance company on the system level is likely to be identival to the corresponding business process

User Goal

  • decribes how a user's goal is reached by interacting with the system (e.g. creating invoices)

Subfunction

  • used to factor our "Subgoals" required to achieve a goal
    • typically without direct business value
    • e.g. find customer data, login, pay by credit card vs. pay cash

Everything that is "smaller" than a subfunction is considered being "too low" 

  • e.g. it does not make sense to decribe the interals of a login operations a s part of a use case model

Softwaretechnik

Use Case Formality Types 

Textual use case descriptions are often written in one of three formats depending on when they are created in the development process 

  • brief
    • terse one paragrphy summary, usally of the main success scenario
    • used early in the development process to get an overview
  • casual 
    • informal paragraph format 
      • multiple paragraphs that cover various scenarios 
      • added when requirements are analyzed in more detail 
  • fully-dressed 
    • most elaborated 
      • all steps and variations written in detail
      • supporting dection such as preconditions and success guarantees 
    • help provide a deep understanding of the goals, tasks and requirements affecting the system
    • usaually written according to a standard template 
      • e.g. the one by Cockburn

Softwaretechnik

Domain Models

The fundamental idea in object-oriented analysis is to decompose a domain of interest 

  • into individual conceptual classes or objects
    • or just things that we are aware of 
  • in order to be able to “rebuild” the real world in the object-oriented software system later 
    •  aim for a “low representational gap”


A domain model is a visual representation of conceptual classes or real world objects in the domain of interest 

  •  it does not describe software classes or objects 
    • but provides inspiration for designing software objects later 
  •  domain models are also know as 
    • conceptual models 
    •  domain object models 
    •  analysis object models

Softwaretechnik

Attributes

  • An attribute is a logical data value of an object 
  •  There are some things that should not be represented as attributes, but rather as associations 
    •  Given that domain objects have their own identity 
  •  Include the following attributes in a domain model 
    •  those for which the requirements (e.g. use cases) suggest or imply a need to remember information 
      • for example, a receipt normally includes a date and a time, and management want to know the dates and times of sales for a variety of reasons 
    • consequently the Sale conceptual class needs a date and time attribute 
  • Do not model “foreign keys”

Softwaretechnik

System Sequence Diagrams

  • Use cases describe how external actors interact with the system 
    •  users generate events which request some operation to be performed (system operation) 
      • e.g. enter ID event requests system to record item’s sale
  •  As a starting point for system design it is important to identify the individual system operations 
  •  So called System Sequence Diagrams (SSD) are useful for this 
    • SSDs are based on the notation of UML interaction diagrams 
  •  For a particular scenario of a use case, an SSD shows 
    •  the events which external actors generate 
    •  the order of these events 
    •  inter-system events 

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