CS IN GENERAL at Universität Mainz

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KEY DATES

Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

John Smith „A Description of New England“ (1616)

Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

John Cotton „God‘s promise to his plantation“ (1630)
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Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

Michael Eyquem de Montaigne “Of the Canniballes” (1562)

Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

Mary Rowlandson “The Soveraignty & Goodness Of God” (1682)

Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

John Lawson Encounters North American Indians (1709)

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Olaudah Equiano Describes the Middle Passage 
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Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

William Bradford “Of Plymouth Plantation”

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John Winthrop “A Modell of Christian charity”

Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

Jonathan Edwards “An Account of his conversion”

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Thomas Paine “On the Religion of Deism”
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Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

Benjamin Franklin Autobiography 

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Exemplary flashcards for CS IN GENERAL at the Universität Mainz on StudySmarter:

CS IN GENERAL

KEY DATES
1492: Columbus reached America
1607: Founding of Jamestown
1619: First Africans arrive in Jamestown
1620: Plymouth Plantation
1630: Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630-42: Great Migration
1636: Antinomian Crisis
1637: Pequot War
1648: Cambridge Platform
1662: Half-Way Covenant
1675-76: King Philip’s War
1734-40s: The Great Awakening
1743: Benjamin Franklin founds Am. Philosophical Society
1756-63: Seven Years’ War
1764: Sugar Act
1765: Stamp Act
1770: Boston Massacre
1773: Boston Tea Party
1774: First Continental Congress
1775: Second Continental Congress
1775-83: War of Independence
1776: Declaration of Independence
1783: Treaty Of Paris
1787: Constitutional Convention
1787: Northwest Ordinance
1787-88: Federalist Papers
1789: Bill of Rights
1793: Invention of the Cotton Gin
1801: Jefferson elected president
1803: Louisiana Purchase
1804-06: Lewis & Clark Expedition
1808: Ban on Transatlantic Slave Trade
1812-15: War of 1812
1820: Missouri Compromise
1830: Indian Removal Act
1831: Nat Turner Rebellion
1831: W.I. Garrison, the liberator
1837: Transcendentalist „Annus Mirabilis“
1838: Trail of Tears
1845: Annexation of Texas
1846-48: Mexican-American War
1848: Seneca Falls Convention
1848: Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
1850: Compromise of 1850
1851: Fugitive Slave Law
1854: Kansas Nebraska Act
1857: Dred Scott
1859: John Brown
1861: Secession Crisis
1863: Emancipation Proclamation
1861-65: Civil War
1865: Juneteenth
1865: Gettysburg Address
1865: 13th Amendment
1865-76: Reconstruction Period
1865-72: Freedman‘s Bureau
1868: 14th Amendment
1870: 15th Amendment
1896: Plessy vs. Ferguson

CS IN GENERAL

John Smith „A Description of New England“ (1616)
- describes the fishing, soils, inhabitants, fauna, flora, &  climate of the coastal region

reasons why man must do everything in his power to be "well employed" and not "idle."
-> Initially, he expresses his disappointment in his current situation & ultimately sets out to encourage others to make the journey to New England, such as he did, although his latest two attempts failed
-> goes to great pains to explain, in depth, locations & their proximity to other locations &  makes reference to famous explorers to whom he is indebted for their contributions to discovering and taking best advantage of new tracts of land
- aware that, without maps and proper direction, travelers may get confused; even admitting to it himself
-> one of his main purposes is to avoid the same problem for those that follow him
->his maps & explanations are therefore designed to add clarity to reaching and settling in this new land
-> His detail about problems & difficulties is also intended to assist others not to make the same mistakes

- stresses his ultimate purpose is to serve his country well & to encourage families & tradesmen to go to New England because it will be of "incredible benefit to King and Country, Master and Servant."


- Colonizing the new world makes sense
-> allows anyone who "has nothing but his hands" to make a new start and to prosper

- of "all the four parts of the world," this has to be the best place for colonization; "a most excellent place for health and fertility."
-> The abundance of fish also make it a worthy place

- mentions the success of other settlers & stresses that there are no landlords and "every man may be master."

- inhabitants who are "very kind" but also keen to defend themselves; determined people who "let fly their arrows."


- trading & fishing stations, prosperous fishery, commerce with Natives =
evidence of the richness of commodities &
signs of the strategic importance to England of securing permanent settlements in the region

- Smith saw New England as a place where English life could be transplanted to America

- advertisement & prospectus for investors & settlers, with Smith to provide the expertise and leadership.

CS IN GENERAL

John Cotton „God‘s promise to his plantation“ (1630)
John Cotton = Puritan minister

- emphasizes connections between the Old Testament Israelites wandering in the wilderness and the Puritans wandering the woods of North America

- asserts the English right to plunder the Americas

- calls on religious authority („the designment of a Place for his“)

- „God makes room for a people 3 ways”
1) casts out of the enemies of a people
2) purchase
3) makes a country void of inhabitants in the pace where they reside -> justification for claiming land in NW

- gives reasons to settle in New England
-> gain knowledge
-> for the sake of the business
-> to create a colony
-> for „the liberty of the ordinances“
-> because a land is filled with sin&danger
-> to escape to better opportunities to repay ruthless creditors
-> to flee persecution

CS IN GENERAL

Michael Eyquem de Montaigne “Of the Canniballes” (1562)
- essay

- reverses contemporary European belief in the superiority of Western culture

-people are apt to judge unfamiliar practices negatively while failing to notice the flaws in their own accepted modes of behavior

-nothing man-made can live up to the beauty and perfection of things created by “nature.
->supposedly “barbarous” inhabitants of the New World, whom he deems closer to nature, are superior to Europeans

- explains Culture of Indians
-> supposedly “barbarous” inhabitants of the New World, whom he deems closer to nature, are superior to Europeans, who have “smothered” nature and “corrupted” themselves
-> live communally in large wooden buildings and spend their days dancing, hunting, and drinking
-> M. praises this practice
-> valuable culture
-> civilized European nations should be more like this

- Europeans often torture their enemies into what Montaigne views as a state of cowardly submission, the Tupinambá treat their prisoners well, and their captives face death with bravery and defiance

CS IN GENERAL

Mary Rowlandson “The Soveraignty & Goodness Of God” (1682)
- MR = colonial American woman who was captured by Native Americans

- describes the people who captured her as “beasts”

- the captivity happened during King Phillips War & MR was held captive for 11 weeks before being rescued

- it demonstrates a sense of fear in regard to the wilderness and her Native American captors
​learns that no one is guaranteed life which means that the stability of life can disappear at any moment

- during her captivity nothing is stable since on one day the Native Americans treat her very well and are very kind, but the next day, the Native Americans starve her without any explanations

- she keeps her faith in God

- the captivity changed her perception on what is actually civilized and what is not

- she naturally sees the Native Americans as savages, but later on she sees some similarities to the settlers

CS IN GENERAL

John Lawson Encounters North American Indians (1709)
- native Americans helped them (settlers) hunt at the right places with great timing

- the settlers got to see places which were extremely beautiful and impressed Lawson-calls their guide “our Indian”

- even though they had plenty of food on their journey they were not satisfied with their meals, because having Turkeys every day bored them

- “their Indian” showed them a village of Native Americans which Lawson was really excited about

- Lawson believes that good cooperation with the “Indians” might help the settlers to achieve big things

- The English civilization is superior to him

CS IN GENERAL

Olaudah Equiano Describes the Middle Passage 
- OE = writer, abolitionist 

CS IN GENERAL

William Bradford “Of Plymouth Plantation”
WB = leader & governor of Plymouth

- his account of past events

-describes the story of the pilgrims from when they lived in the Dutch Republic in 1608 through the Mayflower voyage and up to the year 1647

-discusses his thoughts on religion and the bible compared with the mission of the pilgrims

CS IN GENERAL

John Winthrop “A Modell of Christian charity”
JW = one of the major leaders of the first Puritan settlement in the United States; deeply religious person

- presents a deeply religious idea about how the Puritans should treat one another in order to ensure the survival of their colony

- outlines Massachusetts as Christian utopia & idea of that

CS IN GENERAL

Jonathan Edwards “An Account of his conversion”
JE = early American philosopher and minister who was involved in the Great Awakening

CS IN GENERAL

Thomas Paine “On the Religion of Deism”
TP = English-Born American thinker, philosopher, revolutionary; common sense

- Religion of Deism = Superior to Christian religion

CS IN GENERAL

Benjamin Franklin Autobiography 
-

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