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Statistik I

Descriptive and explorative statistics

• graphical and numerical methods to **describe **and **summarize **data

• methods to detect certain **patterns **and **relations** between variables

Statistik I

Inferential statistics

methods using probability theory to infer from a sample of data to the population of interest

Statistik I

Statistical Units

"Entities"

Statistical units or entities are objects or individuals whose

characteristics are of interest

Examples: frims, households, employees,students

Statistik I

Population

The **collection of all **relevant **units **is called the population and is described by **factual, geographic or time **criteria.

Statistik I

forms of populations

- ﬁnite populations: students enrolled in "Economics" at UKon
- hypothetical population: potential customers in marketing firm
- infinite population: number of rolls in rolling dice experiment

Statistik I

Census

If data on all units of the population is available (rarely feasible) it's called a census.

Statistik I

Sample

"Probe"

A subset may be obtained by drawing a sample from the population. I.e. collecting data from a fraction of the population. Samples should ideally reflect the entire population.

Statistik I

Sample drawing techniques

• a simple random sample: each member of the population has the

same probability to end up in the sample

• a stratiﬁed random sample: the population is divided into

homogeneous subgroups and simple random samples are drawn from

each group

Statistik I

qualitative variables

These take on values that are just labels and divide data into different categories.

Oftentimes categories are coded with numerical values (married = 1, divorced = 2 etc)

Examples: martial status, eye color, study program

Statistik I

quantitative variables

These are measured on a numerical scale. They are further divided into discrete and continuous variables.

Statistik I

discrete variables

countable number of distinct values

Example: number of employees, "how happy are you from 1-10?"

Statistik I

continuous variables

- Inifinite numbers in a given interval.
- may be grouped into classes (discrete)

Example: profit of manufacturing firm

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