Learning And Memory at Universität Konstanz | Flashcards & Summaries

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Definition: Cognitive Psychology 
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A branch of psychology that uses experiments to understand the cognitive processes that underlie behavior 
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What are the three forms of learning?
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1. Habituation (Sensitization)
2. Classical conditioning 
3. Operant conditioning 
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Definition: Behaviorism
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The view that psychologists should study observable behavior and avoid speculating about mental states.
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Definition: learning
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A change in our capacity for behavior as a result of particular kinds of experience.
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What is “operant conditioning”?
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A change in the probability of a response due to the consequences that have followed it. 
(reinforcement, punishment)
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Definition: Habituation 
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A decrease in responding to a stimulus as a result of repeated presentations of the stimulus by itself (only in cases where there is a change in the nervous system linking them)
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What is “classical conditioning”?
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An increase in responding to a stimulus because of its pairing with a biologically important event. This first stimulus is known as a condition stimulus (CS) the second as an unconditioned stimulus (US)
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Definition: associative learning
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Learning about association or relationship between two events that occur together.
(Classical conditioning, operant conditioning)
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Definition: sensitization 
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An increase in responding to a stimulus as a result of repeated presentations of the stimulus by itself.

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What is an example for classical conditioning?
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1. Pavlov’s Dog Experiment (Ivan Pavlov)
2. Little-Albert-Experiment (John B. Watson)

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Definition: Reflex 
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A relationship between a stimulus and response in which the stimulus reliably elicits the same response initially, without prior experience.
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What is the term for a stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus always elicits the same response?
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A reflex 
S -> R
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Q:
Definition: Cognitive Psychology 
A:
A branch of psychology that uses experiments to understand the cognitive processes that underlie behavior 
Q:
What are the three forms of learning?
A:
1. Habituation (Sensitization)
2. Classical conditioning 
3. Operant conditioning 
Q:
Definition: Behaviorism
A:
The view that psychologists should study observable behavior and avoid speculating about mental states.
Q:
Definition: learning
A:
A change in our capacity for behavior as a result of particular kinds of experience.
Q:
What is “operant conditioning”?
A:
A change in the probability of a response due to the consequences that have followed it. 
(reinforcement, punishment)
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Q:
Definition: Habituation 
A:
A decrease in responding to a stimulus as a result of repeated presentations of the stimulus by itself (only in cases where there is a change in the nervous system linking them)
Q:
What is “classical conditioning”?
A:
An increase in responding to a stimulus because of its pairing with a biologically important event. This first stimulus is known as a condition stimulus (CS) the second as an unconditioned stimulus (US)
Q:
Definition: associative learning
A:
Learning about association or relationship between two events that occur together.
(Classical conditioning, operant conditioning)
Q:
Definition: sensitization 
A:
An increase in responding to a stimulus as a result of repeated presentations of the stimulus by itself.

Q:
What is an example for classical conditioning?
A:
1. Pavlov’s Dog Experiment (Ivan Pavlov)
2. Little-Albert-Experiment (John B. Watson)

Q:
Definition: Reflex 
A:
A relationship between a stimulus and response in which the stimulus reliably elicits the same response initially, without prior experience.
Q:
What is the term for a stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus always elicits the same response?
A:
A reflex 
S -> R
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