Immunology at Universität Jena | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Immunology an der Universität Jena

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Innate immunity is

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(also called natural immunity or native immunity) is essential for defending against microbes in the first few hours or days after infection, before adaptive immune responses have developed. Innate immunity is mediated by mechanisms that are in place even before an infection occurs (hence innate) and that facilitate rapid responses to invading microbes.

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Cells of innate immunity

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macrophages

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Epitope

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(also determinant) The part of complex antigen that are specifically recognized by lymphocyte

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Humoral immunity

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is mediated by molecules in the blood and mucosal secretions , called antibodies, which are produced by B lymphocytes. Antibodies recognize microbial antigens, neutralize the infectivity of the microbes, and target microbes for elimination by phagocytes and the complement system.

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Cell-mediated immunity

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also called cellular immunity, is mediated by T lymphocytes. Many microbes are ingested by but survive within phagocytes, and some microbes, notably viruses, infect and replicate in various host cells. In these locations the microbes are inaccessible to circulating antibodies. Defense against such infections is a function of cell-mediated immunity, which promotes the destruction of microbes inside phagocytes and the killing of infected cells to eliminate reservoirs of infection.

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Chemokines

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A large subset of structurally related cytokines that regulate cell migration and movement

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T helper cells

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also known as CD4+ cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the adaptive immune system. They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses. They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages.

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neutrophils are also called

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polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

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Basophils

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are blood granulocytes with many structural and functional similarities to mast cells. (their lineage is different from that of mast cells), and circulate in the blood. Basophils constitute less than 1% of blood leukocytes

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Eosinophils

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 sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, acid-loving
granulocytes that express cytoplasmic granules containing enzymes that are harmful to the cell walls of parasites but can also damage host tissues.
Eosinophil granules contain mainly basic proteins that bind acidic dyes, such as eosin, and this appears red in stained blood smears and tissue sections

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T lymphocytes

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follicular cells

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Mast cell
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 (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a migrant cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin.
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Q:

Innate immunity is

A:

(also called natural immunity or native immunity) is essential for defending against microbes in the first few hours or days after infection, before adaptive immune responses have developed. Innate immunity is mediated by mechanisms that are in place even before an infection occurs (hence innate) and that facilitate rapid responses to invading microbes.

Q:

Cells of innate immunity

A:

macrophages

Q:

Epitope

A:

(also determinant) The part of complex antigen that are specifically recognized by lymphocyte

Q:

Humoral immunity

A:

is mediated by molecules in the blood and mucosal secretions , called antibodies, which are produced by B lymphocytes. Antibodies recognize microbial antigens, neutralize the infectivity of the microbes, and target microbes for elimination by phagocytes and the complement system.

Q:

Cell-mediated immunity

A:

also called cellular immunity, is mediated by T lymphocytes. Many microbes are ingested by but survive within phagocytes, and some microbes, notably viruses, infect and replicate in various host cells. In these locations the microbes are inaccessible to circulating antibodies. Defense against such infections is a function of cell-mediated immunity, which promotes the destruction of microbes inside phagocytes and the killing of infected cells to eliminate reservoirs of infection.

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Q:

Chemokines

A:

A large subset of structurally related cytokines that regulate cell migration and movement

Q:

T helper cells

A:

also known as CD4+ cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the adaptive immune system. They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses. They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages.

Q:

neutrophils are also called

A:

polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

Q:

Basophils

A:

are blood granulocytes with many structural and functional similarities to mast cells. (their lineage is different from that of mast cells), and circulate in the blood. Basophils constitute less than 1% of blood leukocytes

Q:

Eosinophils

A:

 sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, acid-loving
granulocytes that express cytoplasmic granules containing enzymes that are harmful to the cell walls of parasites but can also damage host tissues.
Eosinophil granules contain mainly basic proteins that bind acidic dyes, such as eosin, and this appears red in stained blood smears and tissue sections

Q:

T lymphocytes

A:

follicular cells

Q:
Mast cell
A:
 (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a migrant cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin.
Immunology

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