Introduction To Research Methods at Universität Hildesheim | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Introduction to Research Methods an der Universität Hildesheim

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What are variables?

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- phenomena whose changes can be measured

- can be explanatory concepts

- need precise operational definitions so that researchers can communicate effectively about their findings


Examples: height, time, extroversion } can be measured through scales
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Why do we use Non-Experimental Studies?

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It may enable researchers to gain valuable information (particular group at particular time; improve hypotheses; build a foundation for later correlational or experimental research)


Correlational research is useful when it is not practical, possible, or ethical to conduct an experiment.

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What does Inference mean?

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missing information filled in on the basis of a sample of

evidence or on the basis of prior beliefs and theories 


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What do the basic positions of the philosophy of science determine?

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different positions with different ontological (theory of existence/reality) and epistemological (theory of knowledge) assumptions: conventional approaches (logical empiricism, critical rationalism), constructivism


- What objects we investigate in psychological research
- What methods we use to generate reliable “knowledge” about reality

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What are the difficulties with the Turstone Scaling Method?

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▪The judges themselves cannot be completely neutral, although theyare asked to be objective.
▪Edwards (1957, in Kline, 2000) argued that, for a scale to be reliable,
around 100 judges would be necessary. This makes the cost of creating a Thurstone scale rather prohibitive and is a tall order for most research projects.
▪It is difficult to choose the most discriminating items from among
those with the same scale value.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the three major types of descriptive research? Pros and cons?

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1. The observational method involves close observation (not!!! asking or self report) and documentation of a behavior or phenomenon (can be used in the natural world and therefore is less controlled but more ecologically valid)

2. Case Study: involves a detailed an in-depth study of one or a few individuals (relevant in studying in special situations or individuals) (Limited in making generalizations to the populations; may be influenced by investigator bias)

3. Survey Research: consists of collecting data through the administration of questionnaires or inetrviews

(good when collecting a large sample for analysis but can be misleading or misinterpreted if the survey questions are biased or incomplete)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

​​​​What is Constructivism?

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- Basic assumption: there isn’t a material world that exists independently of us, every person constructs his own world

-Task of science: discover individual worlds
 •Adherents to this approach contend that what we think of as realities are made meaningful only through the use of everchanging historically and culturally constituted patterns of language  
• So, all of what know is contextually situated and subject to change, e.g., how our language with respect to gender and sexual identity has moved from male or female and homosexual or heterosexual to include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, cisgender, transsexual, queer, etc.


- Discursive psychology does not attempt to falsify propositions that are deduced from scientific theories

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What is Logical Empiricism?

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▪ Important representative: Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970)

▪ Further development of Empiricism

- All meaningful statements/theories must be traceable to observations (empiricism)

- Additionally required: formal languagelogic and mathematics (propositions are considered absolutely general and certain)

▪ Criteria of scientific knowledge: experience and logic

Verification principle: whether a theory is true or not depends

on whether the facts can be observed/experienced

Inductive approach 


(▪influential on later models, importance of logical and formal language adapted in most current positions)

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What are operational definitions of psychological constructs?

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=> definition of phenomenon in terms of the precise procedures taken to measure it


-gives us the set of activities required to measure (like a set od instructions)

- many definitions are made specifically for a particular investigative setting

- gives us more or less valid method for measuring some part of a hypothetical construct (rarely covers the wohle)

- must state exactly what we are counting as a measure of the construct of interest

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the basic ontological positions?

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Idealism vs. Realism

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What are ultimate explanations?
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WHY?
Tinbergen:
Evolutionary (Phylogeny): how did evolutionary and earlier generations/species contribute to this behavioral?
Function (Adaption): how does this behavior help the organisms/species survive? (adaptive value)
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What does a good research question indicate?

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-type of relationship being investigated (corretional or causal?)

-variables the researcher is interested in studying (classified by their role in the relationship: correlation: predictor and outcome variables; causation: dependend and independed variable)

-question should be specific enough to be explored in a single study (if question is too broad or unspecific-cant be answered
- good research question can be translated into testable hypothesis (hypothesis must be falsifiable!!)
-good research question is worth the time, effort and expanse to investigate = seek to gain knowledge that will benefit our society/world (applied research: valuable bc it answers real world and practical questions to provide relatively immediate solutions; basic research: aims to generate fundamental knowledge and theoretical understanding of basic human and natural processes; often applied and basic research influences each other)

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Q:

What are variables?

A:

- phenomena whose changes can be measured

- can be explanatory concepts

- need precise operational definitions so that researchers can communicate effectively about their findings


Examples: height, time, extroversion } can be measured through scales
Q:

Why do we use Non-Experimental Studies?

A:

It may enable researchers to gain valuable information (particular group at particular time; improve hypotheses; build a foundation for later correlational or experimental research)


Correlational research is useful when it is not practical, possible, or ethical to conduct an experiment.

Q:

What does Inference mean?

A:

missing information filled in on the basis of a sample of

evidence or on the basis of prior beliefs and theories 


Q:

What do the basic positions of the philosophy of science determine?

A:

different positions with different ontological (theory of existence/reality) and epistemological (theory of knowledge) assumptions: conventional approaches (logical empiricism, critical rationalism), constructivism


- What objects we investigate in psychological research
- What methods we use to generate reliable “knowledge” about reality

Q:

What are the difficulties with the Turstone Scaling Method?

A:

▪The judges themselves cannot be completely neutral, although theyare asked to be objective.
▪Edwards (1957, in Kline, 2000) argued that, for a scale to be reliable,
around 100 judges would be necessary. This makes the cost of creating a Thurstone scale rather prohibitive and is a tall order for most research projects.
▪It is difficult to choose the most discriminating items from among
those with the same scale value.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are the three major types of descriptive research? Pros and cons?

A:

1. The observational method involves close observation (not!!! asking or self report) and documentation of a behavior or phenomenon (can be used in the natural world and therefore is less controlled but more ecologically valid)

2. Case Study: involves a detailed an in-depth study of one or a few individuals (relevant in studying in special situations or individuals) (Limited in making generalizations to the populations; may be influenced by investigator bias)

3. Survey Research: consists of collecting data through the administration of questionnaires or inetrviews

(good when collecting a large sample for analysis but can be misleading or misinterpreted if the survey questions are biased or incomplete)
Q:

​​​​What is Constructivism?

A:

- Basic assumption: there isn’t a material world that exists independently of us, every person constructs his own world

-Task of science: discover individual worlds
 •Adherents to this approach contend that what we think of as realities are made meaningful only through the use of everchanging historically and culturally constituted patterns of language  
• So, all of what know is contextually situated and subject to change, e.g., how our language with respect to gender and sexual identity has moved from male or female and homosexual or heterosexual to include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, cisgender, transsexual, queer, etc.


- Discursive psychology does not attempt to falsify propositions that are deduced from scientific theories

Q:

What is Logical Empiricism?

A:

▪ Important representative: Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970)

▪ Further development of Empiricism

- All meaningful statements/theories must be traceable to observations (empiricism)

- Additionally required: formal languagelogic and mathematics (propositions are considered absolutely general and certain)

▪ Criteria of scientific knowledge: experience and logic

Verification principle: whether a theory is true or not depends

on whether the facts can be observed/experienced

Inductive approach 


(▪influential on later models, importance of logical and formal language adapted in most current positions)

Q:

What are operational definitions of psychological constructs?

A:

=> definition of phenomenon in terms of the precise procedures taken to measure it


-gives us the set of activities required to measure (like a set od instructions)

- many definitions are made specifically for a particular investigative setting

- gives us more or less valid method for measuring some part of a hypothetical construct (rarely covers the wohle)

- must state exactly what we are counting as a measure of the construct of interest

Q:

What are the basic ontological positions?

A:

Idealism vs. Realism

Q:
What are ultimate explanations?
A:
WHY?
Tinbergen:
Evolutionary (Phylogeny): how did evolutionary and earlier generations/species contribute to this behavioral?
Function (Adaption): how does this behavior help the organisms/species survive? (adaptive value)
Q:

What does a good research question indicate?

A:

-type of relationship being investigated (corretional or causal?)

-variables the researcher is interested in studying (classified by their role in the relationship: correlation: predictor and outcome variables; causation: dependend and independed variable)

-question should be specific enough to be explored in a single study (if question is too broad or unspecific-cant be answered
- good research question can be translated into testable hypothesis (hypothesis must be falsifiable!!)
-good research question is worth the time, effort and expanse to investigate = seek to gain knowledge that will benefit our society/world (applied research: valuable bc it answers real world and practical questions to provide relatively immediate solutions; basic research: aims to generate fundamental knowledge and theoretical understanding of basic human and natural processes; often applied and basic research influences each other)

Introduction to Research Methods

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