Plants at Universität Heidelberg

Flashcards and summaries for Plants at the Universität Heidelberg

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Plants at the Universität Heidelberg

Exemplary flashcards for Plants at the Universität Heidelberg on StudySmarter:

Origin of agriculture

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Plant transformation

Exemplary flashcards for Plants at the Universität Heidelberg on StudySmarter:

Integration of T DNA

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Seed development

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Maize

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Agricultural technology (1850-1970)

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Domestication syndrome

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Exemplary flashcards for Plants at the Universität Heidelberg on StudySmarter:

Rize

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Factors of Neolithic revolution 8000 BC

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Wheat

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Preservation of genetic diversity

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Crop plant diversity

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Exemplary flashcards for Plants at the Universität Heidelberg on StudySmarter:

Plants

Origin of agriculture

 10000 years ago, agriculture originated at the same time at different locations in all continents
 Development of crop plants accompanied evolution of modern humans


Plants

Plant transformation

stable incorporation and expression of foreign genes

Plants

Integration of T DNA

 Integration into the plant genome proceeds via right
border and left border inverted repeats
 Illegitimate and sequence-unspecific recombination
into genomic DNA (non-homologous end joining)
 Pol ϴ controls T-DNA integration, by priming DNA-
synthesis from the 3’ end and interacting with the plant
genomic template using only a few bases of homology

Plants

Seed development

 Expression of defined groups of genes leads to formation of storage compounds and embryo development
 Dehydration and increase of dry weight define stages of seed maturation

Plants

Maize

Maize originally derived from Téosinte in the mountains of West-Mexico, following a world-wide distribution since 1492


-12% foodstuff share and 717 Mio. t produced, also
for industrial ethanol production

Plants

Agricultural technology (1850-1970)

 Many industrial changes since 1850, especially with plant protection measures (herbicides/pesticides, 1950) and the green revolution (breeding of resistance traits e.g.
dwarf cereals, 1960-)
 Improvement programs mediated by Consultativ Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Institutes
 Green revolution resulted in yield duplication, now 18% of agricultural surfaces yield up to 40% of total production


Plants

Domestication syndrome

 Similar traits/properties are chosen to differentiate crop plants from wild ancestors

 Factors: few genes, simple inheritage by restricted genomic localization, trait gene expression independent from environment
 Result: crop plants depend on cultivation by men (sowing, harvesting), man depends on sufficient yield production
 Synchronization in the field vs. adaptation towards
multiple influences in a natural environment

Plants

Rize

Rice (Oryza) originates from Asia and Africa, with
propagation areas as far as 8000 years ago in China

-About 34% foodstuff share, 15 Mio. ha planted and
740 Mio. t produced

Plants

Factors of Neolithic revolution 8000 BC

1. Global climate changes after last glacial period
2. Gatherers/hunters become farmers/breeders
3. Wild landscapes turned into fields and grasslands
4. Domestication of plants and animals

Plants

Wheat

Wheat (Triticum) was first domesticated in the Near East, resulting from a normal evolution and spontaneous crossing of three wild parent forms


-Enormous economic importance with 54%
foodstuff share, 215 Mio. ha planted and 710 Mio. t
produced

Plants

Preservation of genetic diversity

 Global Seed Vault in Svalbard, Norway, is an example for a storage for most important crop plant samples


Maintaining of genetic varieties
1. Cold storage
2. Dry storage
3. Tissue culture-based storage
4. Botanical gardens

Plants

Crop plant diversity

 Most crop varieties went extinct compared to last century
 Limitation in gene pool results from concentrated
cultivation of only a few varieties
 Genetic shifts, induced by crosses and mutations, cause an accelerated evolution of crop plants


Means of creating genetic diversity
1. Conservation programs for natural diversity
2. Application of genetic resources for cultivation programs
3. Mutant production
4. Production of hybrids and polyploids
5. Genetic engineering

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