Molecular Biology at Universität Für Bodenkultur Wien | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Molecular Biology an der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien

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Endosome vs Lysosome vs Phagosome

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Lysosome: containment, containing hydrolytic enzymes
Endosome: Compartment in cell with small molecules, previously internalised (prot, metabol., etc.) inside -> used for degrading
Phagosome: Compartment in cell, created by internalisation, containing a bacterium. can fuse with lysosome to form phagolysosome

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What is a transposon?

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A sequence of DNA that can change its position within the DNA, sometimes with a RNA intermediate.

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What is satellite DNA? Properties? Where?

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It names structurally simple parts of DNA with repetitions of 5-10bp of eucaryotes. It makes up up to 10% of the DNA. Most of it is situated in the heterochromatin area, close to the centromere.

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What is the centromere? What is here attached?

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A centromere is the area where the cromatides are joint in the metaphase. (no cell -division). The Kinetochores are attached here.

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What is a micrograph?

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A photo taken through a microscope

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What is an oocyte?
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A female, immature egg cell
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What is a kinetochore? Where is it needed for what?

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It is a disc shaped protein complex, attached to the centromere. Here, the spindle apparatus attaches to pull the sister chromatids apart upon cell division.

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What is a telomere? Where found? Properties? Use? Structure?
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The ends of linear Chromosomes, made up of repet. For eucaryotes, six nucleotides repeat up to a thousand times. 5'–TTAGGG–3' . They stabilise the end of the chromosomes and are protein associated and have particular secondary structures.
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What is a genetic barcode?
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when, for example, a library of vectors is created, one must be able to trace a gene back. To do that, a certain sequence is added to the gene of interest as a "barcode". This is done with the primer. during the PCR
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What is a virus like particle?

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This is a Particle like a virus, only lacking the DNA.
It is non-infectous.

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What is a RT PCR? How does it work and what is it used for?

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The RT PCR is used to turn a bunch of RNA (maybe mRNA) into a lot more cDNA. In the beginning, a RT (Reverse transcriptase) is used to revserse transcribe the RNA to cDNA. This duo is then denatured to ss by heat. The heat also denatures the RT. The mix usually also contains a thermostable DNA pol. This is used now to amplify the residual sscDNA. The DNA pol will not work on the RNA still present. This is used to create cDNA libraries for example.

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What is a ribozyme?

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An enzymatically active RNA fragment

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Q:

Endosome vs Lysosome vs Phagosome

A:

Lysosome: containment, containing hydrolytic enzymes
Endosome: Compartment in cell with small molecules, previously internalised (prot, metabol., etc.) inside -> used for degrading
Phagosome: Compartment in cell, created by internalisation, containing a bacterium. can fuse with lysosome to form phagolysosome

Q:

What is a transposon?

A:

A sequence of DNA that can change its position within the DNA, sometimes with a RNA intermediate.

Q:

What is satellite DNA? Properties? Where?

A:

It names structurally simple parts of DNA with repetitions of 5-10bp of eucaryotes. It makes up up to 10% of the DNA. Most of it is situated in the heterochromatin area, close to the centromere.

Q:

What is the centromere? What is here attached?

A:

A centromere is the area where the cromatides are joint in the metaphase. (no cell -division). The Kinetochores are attached here.

Q:

What is a micrograph?

A:

A photo taken through a microscope

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Q:
What is an oocyte?
A:
A female, immature egg cell
Q:

What is a kinetochore? Where is it needed for what?

A:

It is a disc shaped protein complex, attached to the centromere. Here, the spindle apparatus attaches to pull the sister chromatids apart upon cell division.

Q:
What is a telomere? Where found? Properties? Use? Structure?
A:
The ends of linear Chromosomes, made up of repet. For eucaryotes, six nucleotides repeat up to a thousand times. 5'–TTAGGG–3' . They stabilise the end of the chromosomes and are protein associated and have particular secondary structures.
Q:
What is a genetic barcode?
A:
when, for example, a library of vectors is created, one must be able to trace a gene back. To do that, a certain sequence is added to the gene of interest as a "barcode". This is done with the primer. during the PCR
Q:

What is a virus like particle?

A:

This is a Particle like a virus, only lacking the DNA.
It is non-infectous.

Q:

What is a RT PCR? How does it work and what is it used for?

A:

The RT PCR is used to turn a bunch of RNA (maybe mRNA) into a lot more cDNA. In the beginning, a RT (Reverse transcriptase) is used to revserse transcribe the RNA to cDNA. This duo is then denatured to ss by heat. The heat also denatures the RT. The mix usually also contains a thermostable DNA pol. This is used now to amplify the residual sscDNA. The DNA pol will not work on the RNA still present. This is used to create cDNA libraries for example.

Q:

What is a ribozyme?

A:

An enzymatically active RNA fragment

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