Introduction to Linguistics at Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

sentence types (4) 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

different verbs of transitivity 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

Def. pragmatics

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

Def. Icon

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

Onomatopoetic expression

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

finite vs. non- finite

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

transitive vs. intranitive verbs

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

Def. Constituents

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

Difference subject complement vs object complement

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

3 verb types and their function/ difference (without modal auxiliaries)

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

two different types of modal auxiliaries

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

Def. 

Historical comparative linguistics

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Universität Freiburg im Breisgau on StudySmarter:

Introduction to Linguistics

sentence types (4) 

1- simple sentence:

one main clause (at leas S + V)


2- complex:

at least 2 clauses, combined through subordination (subordinating conjunctions like because, although, that)


3- compound:

at least two main clauses, combined through coordination (coordinators: and, but, yet)


4- complex compound sentence:

at least 3 clauses, combined through subordination and coordination 

main clause + coordinator + main clause + subordinator + coordinator

Introduction to Linguistics

different verbs of transitivity 

- intransitive verbs: require only one argument, namely a subject (e.g. John slept) 


- transitive verbs: require not only a subject but at least on object (e.g. John forgot the message) -> demand an object


monotransitive: require one argument

ditransitive: require an additional indirect object, object complement or an object adverbial 


- Copulas: join the subject of a clause to a Subject complement


- Complex transitive verbs: 

join an object to an object complement




Introduction to Linguistics

Def. pragmatics

-> What is meant?


- study of meaning in context

- uncover principles which helps us bridge the gap between "what is said" and "what is meant"


Introduction to Linguistics

Def. Icon

similarity between the sign and what it stands for -> motivated relationship 

Introduction to Linguistics

Onomatopoetic expression

sound similarity; e.g. bow-wow for barking; cuckoo for a bird

Introduction to Linguistics

finite vs. non- finite

1. finite= tensed: I spoke to John. ; Is it raining? ; We didn't get. -> Verb shows tense. 


2. non- finite= not tensed:  contain a verb which does not show tense; normally in subordinate clauses 

- verbs + ing (Gerund)

- to- infinitive 

Introduction to Linguistics

transitive vs. intranitive verbs

1. transitive: demand an object; otherwise the sentence would be illogical, e.g.: Please bring coffee./ She loves rainbows.


2. intransitive: does not require an object to be a logical sentence: They jumped./ The dog ran. 

Introduction to Linguistics

Def. Constituents

the building blocks of sentences; elements which together form a unit at some level of sentence description, e.g.: S, V, direct Object, indirect object, subject complement, object complement, adverbials

Introduction to Linguistics

Difference subject complement vs object complement

Subject complement:

- follows a linking verb (be, appear, feel, look, sound, smell, ...)

- adds information to the subject


Object complement:

- follows a direct object

- adds information to the direct object

Introduction to Linguistics

3 verb types and their function/ difference (without modal auxiliaries)

1. main verb

the rightmost element of the verb string; determine what other (non- verbal) elements the sentence contains -> complementation

2. auxiliary verb

'auxiliary', traditional term for a verb having the same kind of meaning as a verbal inflection functional meaning

3. primary verb

be, have, do -> can function as main verb or auxiliary verb; with non- verbal complements, they function as lexical verbs

Introduction to Linguistics

two different types of modal auxiliaries

1. epistemic modality: speaker's belief regarding truth of a proposition 

-> ("He must/will/ may be at home")


2. deontic modality: obligation/ permission

-> ("You must/ can/ may/ do your homework.")


=> sometimes ambiguous: "He must play tennis a log"; Surely plays or is obliged to play

Introduction to Linguistics

Def. 

Historical comparative linguistics

Diachronic language comparison to identify universal laws of language change, reconstruct a common protolanguage, as well as identify genetic relationships between languages

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