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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cell-Based Communication (CBC)

What is a Cellular Network?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cellular networks are radio networks
consisting of several transmitters.
- Each transmitter or base station,
covers a certain area ->a cell.
- Cell radii can vary from tens of meters
to several kilometres.
-The shape of a cell is influenced by
the environment (buildings, etc.) and
usually neither hexagonal nor a
perfect circle, even though this is the
usual way of drawing them.

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What is an Information System? 

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§ Information System (IS):
A system which was built to be used as part of an
enterprise. It contains all relevant application systems
and is embedded into the organisation and
management of an enterprise.

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What is a Communication System?

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§ A communication system is a collection of to each other
compatible
§ Hardware (terminals, physical network components),
§ Software (operation systems, network protocols, application systems),
and
§ Transmission protocols,

which allow an exchange of information – for example between different sites of an enterprise.

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What is an Application System (AS)?

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§ Application System (AS):
A system which consists of business tasks and processes
it supports, the underlying IT-infrastructure, the
application software and the data it required in order
to accomplish its objectives.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain Data, Knowledge, Information and Communication

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Data and Information

§ Data: Characters (symbols), which are based on mutual
agreements, represent information in an electronically processable
manner.
§ Knowledge: Contents containing the beliefs about the truth of
statements (Wittmann, 1959).
§ Information: Explicit (in the form of language expressed)
knowledge, which is used by humans in order to accomplish
business objectives —> purposeful knowledge (Wittmann, 1959).
§ Communication: Exchange of information between humans as well
as the exchange of data between machines.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the Interplay of Information and
Communication Systems

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  •  Information System(organisational orientation)

§ Designed for a specific operational area of responsibility

§ Considers organisational and basic personal requirements

§ Supports decision making, coordination, controlling and

monitoring in enterprises, but even more aids managers and

employees to analyse problems, understand complex business

cases and develop new products.

§ Communication Systems (technical orientation)

§ Physical networking

§ Transmission media

§ Hardware and software

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain Input, Processing, Output and Feedback

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Elementary Functions of
Application Systems with regard to
Data and Information

§ Input: Entering or gathering of raw data -> E.g. item ids for shirts,
sold units, code for department store
§ Processing: Transformation of data into a form comprehendible for
humans -> E.g. which shirts have to be produced? For which
department stores? Which department stores generate the highest
revenue? …
§ Output: Distribution of processed information to the respective
persons in charge -> E.g. transmission to TAL, J.C. Penney, shirt
producer ...
§ Feedback: Output is sent back to persons in charge for the purpose
of evaluation / correction

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain Formal System, Program, Software, Hardware

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Formal Systems

§ Formal System: A system which is based on accepted
and fixed definitions for data and processes and works
based on predefined rules.
§ Program: A processing specification (algorithm)
consisting of a series of commands, expressed in the
machine code of the respective executing computer.
§ Software: Program written in a programming language
§ Hardware: Physical devices used for the purpose of
input, processing and output in information systems.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the abstracting mechanisms for modelling?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

§ Abstracting mechanisms for modelling are:
§ Aggregation (vs. Disaggregation): Several different objects are
combined to a new object.
§ Generalisation (vs. Specialisation): Similar objects are
abstracted to become a new high-level object.

§ Example
§ Aggregation: Keyboard, Display, Antenna, Case
-> Mobile Device
§ Generalisation: Mobile Phone, Smart Phone, Notebook->
Mobile Device

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the Architecture Concepts of
Networked IS
§ Central Server Architecture

§ Client / Server Architecture

§ Cloud Computing Architecture

§ Peer-to-Peer Architecture

§ Edge Computing Architecture

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Architecture Concepts of
Networked IS

§ Central Server Architecture
Low-feature terminals (receiver of services) attached to a powerful central
computing unit (provider of services)
§ Client / Server Architecture
Network of computers, which can take the role of a server (provider of
services), a client (receiver of services) or both.
§ Cloud Computing Architecture
Network of computers in the role of a client (receiver of services) connected
to a “cloud” of computers (provider of services), which act as a single central
server
§ Peer-to-Peer Architecture

Network of computers holding equal rights (provider / receiver of services)
§ Edge Computing Architecture
Leverages network resources to optimise cloud computing systems by
performing data processing at the edge of the network, near the data source

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe Layer Models

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

§ In order to reduce complexity of communication
systems, most networks are built using multiple layers,
one upon the other.
§ In all networks, layers provide specific services to the
layer above while, in particular, shielding it from
details such as how these services are provided or
implemented.
§ In informatics, this concept is known from the areas of
abstract data types, data encapsulation and object-
oriented programming
.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why do we use Layer Models? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

§ In order to reduce complexity of communication
systems, most networks are built using multiple layers,
one upon the other.

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Q:

Cell-Based Communication (CBC)

What is a Cellular Network?

A:

Cellular networks are radio networks
consisting of several transmitters.
- Each transmitter or base station,
covers a certain area ->a cell.
- Cell radii can vary from tens of meters
to several kilometres.
-The shape of a cell is influenced by
the environment (buildings, etc.) and
usually neither hexagonal nor a
perfect circle, even though this is the
usual way of drawing them.

Q:

What is an Information System? 

A:

§ Information System (IS):
A system which was built to be used as part of an
enterprise. It contains all relevant application systems
and is embedded into the organisation and
management of an enterprise.

Q:

What is a Communication System?

A:

§ A communication system is a collection of to each other
compatible
§ Hardware (terminals, physical network components),
§ Software (operation systems, network protocols, application systems),
and
§ Transmission protocols,

which allow an exchange of information – for example between different sites of an enterprise.

Q:

What is an Application System (AS)?

A:

§ Application System (AS):
A system which consists of business tasks and processes
it supports, the underlying IT-infrastructure, the
application software and the data it required in order
to accomplish its objectives.

Q:

Explain Data, Knowledge, Information and Communication

A:

Data and Information

§ Data: Characters (symbols), which are based on mutual
agreements, represent information in an electronically processable
manner.
§ Knowledge: Contents containing the beliefs about the truth of
statements (Wittmann, 1959).
§ Information: Explicit (in the form of language expressed)
knowledge, which is used by humans in order to accomplish
business objectives —> purposeful knowledge (Wittmann, 1959).
§ Communication: Exchange of information between humans as well
as the exchange of data between machines.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Explain the Interplay of Information and
Communication Systems

A:
  •  Information System(organisational orientation)

§ Designed for a specific operational area of responsibility

§ Considers organisational and basic personal requirements

§ Supports decision making, coordination, controlling and

monitoring in enterprises, but even more aids managers and

employees to analyse problems, understand complex business

cases and develop new products.

§ Communication Systems (technical orientation)

§ Physical networking

§ Transmission media

§ Hardware and software

Q:

Explain Input, Processing, Output and Feedback

A:

Elementary Functions of
Application Systems with regard to
Data and Information

§ Input: Entering or gathering of raw data -> E.g. item ids for shirts,
sold units, code for department store
§ Processing: Transformation of data into a form comprehendible for
humans -> E.g. which shirts have to be produced? For which
department stores? Which department stores generate the highest
revenue? …
§ Output: Distribution of processed information to the respective
persons in charge -> E.g. transmission to TAL, J.C. Penney, shirt
producer ...
§ Feedback: Output is sent back to persons in charge for the purpose
of evaluation / correction

Q:

Explain Formal System, Program, Software, Hardware

A:

Formal Systems

§ Formal System: A system which is based on accepted
and fixed definitions for data and processes and works
based on predefined rules.
§ Program: A processing specification (algorithm)
consisting of a series of commands, expressed in the
machine code of the respective executing computer.
§ Software: Program written in a programming language
§ Hardware: Physical devices used for the purpose of
input, processing and output in information systems.

Q:

Explain the abstracting mechanisms for modelling?

A:

§ Abstracting mechanisms for modelling are:
§ Aggregation (vs. Disaggregation): Several different objects are
combined to a new object.
§ Generalisation (vs. Specialisation): Similar objects are
abstracted to become a new high-level object.

§ Example
§ Aggregation: Keyboard, Display, Antenna, Case
-> Mobile Device
§ Generalisation: Mobile Phone, Smart Phone, Notebook->
Mobile Device

Q:

Explain the Architecture Concepts of
Networked IS
§ Central Server Architecture

§ Client / Server Architecture

§ Cloud Computing Architecture

§ Peer-to-Peer Architecture

§ Edge Computing Architecture

A:

Architecture Concepts of
Networked IS

§ Central Server Architecture
Low-feature terminals (receiver of services) attached to a powerful central
computing unit (provider of services)
§ Client / Server Architecture
Network of computers, which can take the role of a server (provider of
services), a client (receiver of services) or both.
§ Cloud Computing Architecture
Network of computers in the role of a client (receiver of services) connected
to a “cloud” of computers (provider of services), which act as a single central
server
§ Peer-to-Peer Architecture

Network of computers holding equal rights (provider / receiver of services)
§ Edge Computing Architecture
Leverages network resources to optimise cloud computing systems by
performing data processing at the edge of the network, near the data source

Q:

Describe Layer Models

A:

§ In order to reduce complexity of communication
systems, most networks are built using multiple layers,
one upon the other.
§ In all networks, layers provide specific services to the
layer above while, in particular, shielding it from
details such as how these services are provided or
implemented.
§ In informatics, this concept is known from the areas of
abstract data types, data encapsulation and object-
oriented programming
.

Q:

Why do we use Layer Models? 

A:

§ In order to reduce complexity of communication
systems, most networks are built using multiple layers,
one upon the other.

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