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Lernmaterialien für Micro an der Universität Frankfurt am Main

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name two ways in which DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another (1 point each).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

i) Conjugation 

ii) transducting bacteriophages

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the differences between bacteria and Archaea in: 

i) plasma membrane lipids (1) 

ii) other cell surface molecules (1)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

i) Bacteria have ester lipids while archaea have ether lipids 

ii) Bacteria have peptidoglycan and archaea have pseudomurein

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Some bacteria are so large that you do not need a microsope to see them. 

i) Why could this be problem for transport of nutrients, metabolites and macromolecules? (1 point) 

ii) How is the problem solved? (2 points)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

i) They have no endocytosis and have to take up all their nutrients across the cell membrane 

ii) Cytoplasm and genome copies are distributed around the edge of the cell around the huge vacuole to reduce the distances

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is environmental sequencing? What are the major advantages compared with previous methods (organism isolation and individual study, and small subunit rRNA sequencing) (3 points)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Sequences the whole sample and the computer reassembles (as much as possible). For that the organisms do not have to be cultured. E S includes organisms with highly diverget sequenzes and makes no assumptions

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Horizontal gene transfer: 

What features of an operon would lead you to suspect that it had been acquired from a different organism? (3 points)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

CG content is different in that sequence and that also means different codon usage. If that part of the genome came in via a transposon, the will be boundary sequences. Also phylogeny. The evolutionary tree for that particular operon might lead to a wrong place on the tree

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Bacteria take up all nutrients using membrane carriers and transporters. The nutrients then move through the cytoplasm by diffusion. 

How can huge bacteria survive? (2 points)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cytoplasm and genome copies are distributed around the edge of the cell around the huge vacuole to reduce the distances.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Many organisms fix carbon using carbonic anydrase and ribulose phosphate decarboxylase. (calvin cycle). Name one other pathway of carbon fixation that is found in some bacteria or archaea. (1 point)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Calvin cycle (carboxysomes)
Reverse cirtic acid cycle
Wood Ljungdahl pathway
Glyoxylate cycle

Hydroxypropionate pathwa

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

For green and purple sulfur bacteria: 

i) name the photosystem and the direct electron acceptor (2 points total) 

ii) Why is this important for NADP reduction? (2 points)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

i) Purple - PS II →quinone 

Green - PSI →ferredoxin 

ii) quinone cannot reduce NADP but ferredoxin is more reduced than NAD+/NADP and can reduce it to NADH/NADPH

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What do bacteria secrete in order to take up iron? (1 point)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Siderphores who solubilise iron and are then taken up again

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Heme from soy leghemoglobin (but produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris) is used in the vegan “Impossible burger” to give a meaty taste. What is the normal function of leghemoglobin in the soybean plant? Describe in detail why this is important for the plant (4 points).

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Leghemoglobin is produced by the plant when it is associated with Rhizobium and regulates O2 levels in the plant. The O2 levels are very important because the nitrogenase is very O2 sensitive, however the bacteria need some O2 to generate energy. Under ideal circumstances the plant receives reduced nitrogen compounds

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which enzymes and other proteins would you find in purified carboxysomes? (2 points)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) carbonic anhydrase

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe briefly 2 ways in which you might recognise portions of a bacterial genome that had entered by gene transfer (1 point each)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

i) CG content is different in that sequence and that also means different codon usage 

ii) If that part of the genome came in via a transposon, the will be boundary sequences

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Name two ways in which DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another (1 point each).

A:

i) Conjugation 

ii) transducting bacteriophages

Q:

Describe the differences between bacteria and Archaea in: 

i) plasma membrane lipids (1) 

ii) other cell surface molecules (1)

A:

i) Bacteria have ester lipids while archaea have ether lipids 

ii) Bacteria have peptidoglycan and archaea have pseudomurein

Q:

Some bacteria are so large that you do not need a microsope to see them. 

i) Why could this be problem for transport of nutrients, metabolites and macromolecules? (1 point) 

ii) How is the problem solved? (2 points)

A:

i) They have no endocytosis and have to take up all their nutrients across the cell membrane 

ii) Cytoplasm and genome copies are distributed around the edge of the cell around the huge vacuole to reduce the distances

Q:

What is environmental sequencing? What are the major advantages compared with previous methods (organism isolation and individual study, and small subunit rRNA sequencing) (3 points)

A:

Sequences the whole sample and the computer reassembles (as much as possible). For that the organisms do not have to be cultured. E S includes organisms with highly diverget sequenzes and makes no assumptions

Q:

Horizontal gene transfer: 

What features of an operon would lead you to suspect that it had been acquired from a different organism? (3 points)

A:

CG content is different in that sequence and that also means different codon usage. If that part of the genome came in via a transposon, the will be boundary sequences. Also phylogeny. The evolutionary tree for that particular operon might lead to a wrong place on the tree

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Bacteria take up all nutrients using membrane carriers and transporters. The nutrients then move through the cytoplasm by diffusion. 

How can huge bacteria survive? (2 points)

A:

Cytoplasm and genome copies are distributed around the edge of the cell around the huge vacuole to reduce the distances.

Q:

Many organisms fix carbon using carbonic anydrase and ribulose phosphate decarboxylase. (calvin cycle). Name one other pathway of carbon fixation that is found in some bacteria or archaea. (1 point)

A:

Calvin cycle (carboxysomes)
Reverse cirtic acid cycle
Wood Ljungdahl pathway
Glyoxylate cycle

Hydroxypropionate pathwa

Q:

For green and purple sulfur bacteria: 

i) name the photosystem and the direct electron acceptor (2 points total) 

ii) Why is this important for NADP reduction? (2 points)

A:

i) Purple - PS II →quinone 

Green - PSI →ferredoxin 

ii) quinone cannot reduce NADP but ferredoxin is more reduced than NAD+/NADP and can reduce it to NADH/NADPH

Q:

What do bacteria secrete in order to take up iron? (1 point)

A:

Siderphores who solubilise iron and are then taken up again

Q:

Heme from soy leghemoglobin (but produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris) is used in the vegan “Impossible burger” to give a meaty taste. What is the normal function of leghemoglobin in the soybean plant? Describe in detail why this is important for the plant (4 points).

A:

Leghemoglobin is produced by the plant when it is associated with Rhizobium and regulates O2 levels in the plant. The O2 levels are very important because the nitrogenase is very O2 sensitive, however the bacteria need some O2 to generate energy. Under ideal circumstances the plant receives reduced nitrogen compounds

Q:

Which enzymes and other proteins would you find in purified carboxysomes? (2 points)

A:

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) carbonic anhydrase

Q:

Describe briefly 2 ways in which you might recognise portions of a bacterial genome that had entered by gene transfer (1 point each)

A:

i) CG content is different in that sequence and that also means different codon usage 

ii) If that part of the genome came in via a transposon, the will be boundary sequences

Micro

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