Translational Immunology at Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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Exemplary flashcards for Translational Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

two phases of virus replication

Exemplary flashcards for Translational Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

classification of viruses nowadays

Exemplary flashcards for Translational Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

definition infection (virus)

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Exemplary flashcards for Translational Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

cytopathic effects (CPE)

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syncytia

Exemplary flashcards for Translational Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

different strains with different pathogenesis

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How could pandemic strains evolve?

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enhancing the pathogenecity

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differences between resistant, tolerant and susceptible hosts

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VZV vaccine: OKA

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natural protection against HIV-infection

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Innate sensing of viral infection

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Exemplary flashcards for Translational Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

Translational Immunology

two phases of virus replication

free virions, virus infected cells

Translational Immunology

classification of viruses nowadays

nucleic acid homologies

--> family, genera, species

Translational Immunology

definition infection (virus)

viral nucleic acid enters cell and function of a viral gene is realized

Translational Immunology

cytopathic effects (CPE)

visible changes in the morphology of virus-infected cells: inclusion bodies, syncytia, loss of adherence, rounding
--> used in plaque assay

Translational Immunology

syncytia

- virus leads to fusion of cells to make multinucleated cells

- makes sense for the virus because of the fusion the virus can use all metabolic capasities from the second cell (e.g. more ribosomes)

Translational Immunology

different strains with different pathogenesis

spanish flu 1918 H1N1

- 20-50% of world population infected --> 2% case fatality rate

- rapid disease progression

- pathogenicity: reconstructed 1918 virus from victims by PCR and infected resus monkeys
--> severe damage in lungs (ARS), high titer of virus in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, aberrant innate immune response


avian influenza (Hong Kong) 1997 H5N1:

- in total 18 human cases (5 died) --> >1 million chicken affected

- no human-to-human transmission


only in China 2013 H7N9:

- 1567 cases --> 620 deaths

- comes annually each year in a special region in china

- no human-to-human transmission --> from bird to human

Translational Immunology

How could pandemic strains evolve?

antigenic shift and antigenic drift changes the virus geneticalls 

--> different HA or NP mutations changes the pathogenecity

Translational Immunology

enhancing the pathogenecity

- replacing only the HA protein
--> increased virulence, increased pathogenecity, increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines

- temperature

- pH-dependent fusion

- polymerase activity

- neuraminidase activity

Translational Immunology

differences between resistant, tolerant and susceptible hosts

--> question of balance of immune activation

- resistant host: elimination of pathogen

- tolerant host: virus replication but the immune response does not overreact

- susceptible host: failure to clear the pathogen or tolerate immune-mediated damage

Translational Immunology

VZV vaccine: OKA

- isolated from child with chicken pox and several passages in cell culture

- recommended in many countries

- OKA variability of vaccines --> single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

Translational Immunology

natural protection against HIV-infection

homozygous delta32 mutation in CCR5
--> protected from sexually transmitted HIV

Translational Immunology

Innate sensing of viral infection

- PAMPs sensed by myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs --> APC+ IFNa

- HIV-1 sensed by TLR7/8 in pDCs
--> induction of INFa

- instrinsic sensing by TLRs, RLRs (Rig-1 like receptors) and NLRs (Nod-like receptors)

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