Phonetics And Phonology at Universität Duisburg-Essen | Flashcards & Summaries

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the plosives

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                              v-                  v+

bilabial                 p                     b

alveolar                t                      d

velar                     k                      g 

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palatal fricatives

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 - voiceless palatal fricative [ ʃ  ]

shine, show, fashion

<-ion> - words

notion, nation

<s>

sure


voiced palatal fricative   I ʒ  I 

words of french origin 

measure, pleasure, illusion


Beware: voiced palatal fricative is not part of German phoneme inventory ( occurs in foreign words only, e.g. Gigolo, which not fully (exicalized)

-> Germans tend to substitute I ʒ I with I ʃ  I

* measure= meʃe

"pleasure = pleʃe

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content words

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- possess semantic content & contribute to the meaning of the sentence 

- include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

thinking, thanks, thorough

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Prefixes

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- prefix <un> is never turned into schwa! ( can be confused with <in>) 

unnatural       ʌnˈ nætʃərəl 

unmoved        ʌnˈ muvd 


The unstressed prefix " ex "

two realisations: I ɪks I or I ɪgˈs I

General rule ( there are exceptions ) 

<ex>       I ɪks I before v-

<ex>       I ɪgˈz I  before v+


voiced

example, exert, exam

ɪgˈzɑ:mpᵊl ‖ ɪgˈzæmpᵊl


voiceless

extinct, explode, 

ɪksˈtɪnkt

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f,v

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-Labiodental fricatives

<f>          fɔː ‖ fɔːr 

<v>          vɔːɪs 

<gh>, <ph>

enough, rough                          ɪˈnʌf, rʌf 

physics, photography             fəˈtɒgrəfɪ ‖ fəˈtɑːgrəfɪ 

Germans tend to confuse I w I and I v I  * welwət

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the morpheme / suffix {ed}

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Realisation of {ed}

/t/ → after voiceless sounds

/d/ → after voiced sounds

/ɪd/ or /əd/ → after /t/, /d/


v- + {ed} - I t I 

he talked     hiː tɔːkt

he finished  hiː finiʃt


v+ + {ed} -> I d I 

he moved         hiː muːvd

she dreamed    ʃiː driːmd 


I t,d I + { ed } -> I ɪd I or I əd I

permitted, rewarded, hesitated, granted, loaded


we cannot apply this rule when  belongs to the word stem! bed, feed

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θ&ð

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- interdental fricatives 

- referred to as TH 

   -> produced by placing your tongue  between your teeth 

    -> few languages have these sounds, so they are considered as very idiosyncratic

- learners of English tend to substitute them with I s I, I z I


- if you want to know if I θ I or I ð I, you have to distinguish between function word or content word 

- At beginning of function words always voiced  ð 

- at beginning of content words always voiceless θ 

-interdental fricatives before vowels mainly voiced weather,father, mother

- Exception: Greek/ Latin origin have voiceless I TH I before vowel

method, author, sympathy


interdental fricatives at the end of words you have to know: 

bath         bɑːθ

bathe       beɪð

wrath       rɒθ ‖ rɑːθ

scythe     saɪð



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Function word

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- little lexical meaning

   -> expresses grammatical relationships

- prepositions (of, at, in)

- pronouns (they, them)

- determiners (the, that)

- conjunctions ( and, that )

- auxiliary verbs ( have, be)

- particles ( no, not)



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Classification

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lat.: consonare: to sound with 

- according to three pieces 

-> the place of articulation: where is the vocal tract obstructed

-> the voicing whether it is voiced or voiceless 

-> the manner of articulation: how the vocal tract is obstructed


- only sound with vowel sound 

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 I ɜː II ɝː I 

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-cental vowel

- only in RP I ɜː I

- only in GA I ɝː I

- long vowel

- tongue same position as I ə I, i.e. in the middle of the mouth

- "long schwa"

- only in RP occurs before historic I r I 

- in GenAm r- coloured the symbol for which is I ɝː I 


<er>,<ea>, <ir>, <ur>, <or>, <our> r richtig betonen in GenAm

her, were      hɜː ‖ hɝː      wɜː‖wɝ: 

early, earth  ɜːlɪ ‖ ɝːlːɪ      ɜːθ ‖ ɝːθ 

word, world

journey, journalist


BEWARE

for I ɜː I  or  I ɝː I NO ROUNDING OF LIPS!

Germans often do it!

<Where > and <Were> kept distinct!

"Where were you"   weə wɜː juː ‖ weᵊr wɝː juː 


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ʌ

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- but sound 

- short sound

- similar position for I ə I and I ɜː I

  -> e.g. in middle of of your mouth, only that its slightly pressed on 

- many ( eg. German) realise it as low front I a I but it is different

   -> germans tend to say * matʃ instead of I mʌtʃ  I

- historically I ʌ I from I ʊ I

- some dialects still use  I ʊ I

- presence or absence of I ʌ I is most reliable indicator to distinguish between northern and southern English accent 

   -e.g.: Yorkshire: Northern I bʊs I

                               Southern I bʌs I 


- <u>,<o>, <ou>, <oo>

luck, run

money, month,

<son> and <sun> same = sʌn 

country, touch

blood, flood= spelling of I ʌ I presents anomaly

Before <m>, <n>, <v>  I ʌ I is mostly spelled I o I , <some>

Not always

<some>, <come> I sʌm I,I kʌm I  but <common> I kɒmən II kɑːmən I 

< one, come, some, does, done, nothing, love >


problem: < monk, sponge, monkey >

right to pronounce : I mʌŋk, spʌndʒ, mʌŋkɪ I

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Manner

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main:

- plosive          <peter>

- affricates      <change> (-> only these two)

- fricatives       <vice>

- nasals            <man>


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Q:

the plosives

A:

                              v-                  v+

bilabial                 p                     b

alveolar                t                      d

velar                     k                      g 

Q:

palatal fricatives

A:

 - voiceless palatal fricative [ ʃ  ]

shine, show, fashion

<-ion> - words

notion, nation

<s>

sure


voiced palatal fricative   I ʒ  I 

words of french origin 

measure, pleasure, illusion


Beware: voiced palatal fricative is not part of German phoneme inventory ( occurs in foreign words only, e.g. Gigolo, which not fully (exicalized)

-> Germans tend to substitute I ʒ I with I ʃ  I

* measure= meʃe

"pleasure = pleʃe

Q:

content words

A:

- possess semantic content & contribute to the meaning of the sentence 

- include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

thinking, thanks, thorough

Q:

Prefixes

A:

- prefix <un> is never turned into schwa! ( can be confused with <in>) 

unnatural       ʌnˈ nætʃərəl 

unmoved        ʌnˈ muvd 


The unstressed prefix " ex "

two realisations: I ɪks I or I ɪgˈs I

General rule ( there are exceptions ) 

<ex>       I ɪks I before v-

<ex>       I ɪgˈz I  before v+


voiced

example, exert, exam

ɪgˈzɑ:mpᵊl ‖ ɪgˈzæmpᵊl


voiceless

extinct, explode, 

ɪksˈtɪnkt

Q:

f,v

A:

-Labiodental fricatives

<f>          fɔː ‖ fɔːr 

<v>          vɔːɪs 

<gh>, <ph>

enough, rough                          ɪˈnʌf, rʌf 

physics, photography             fəˈtɒgrəfɪ ‖ fəˈtɑːgrəfɪ 

Germans tend to confuse I w I and I v I  * welwət

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Q:

the morpheme / suffix {ed}

A:

Realisation of {ed}

/t/ → after voiceless sounds

/d/ → after voiced sounds

/ɪd/ or /əd/ → after /t/, /d/


v- + {ed} - I t I 

he talked     hiː tɔːkt

he finished  hiː finiʃt


v+ + {ed} -> I d I 

he moved         hiː muːvd

she dreamed    ʃiː driːmd 


I t,d I + { ed } -> I ɪd I or I əd I

permitted, rewarded, hesitated, granted, loaded


we cannot apply this rule when  belongs to the word stem! bed, feed

Q:

θ&ð

A:

- interdental fricatives 

- referred to as TH 

   -> produced by placing your tongue  between your teeth 

    -> few languages have these sounds, so they are considered as very idiosyncratic

- learners of English tend to substitute them with I s I, I z I


- if you want to know if I θ I or I ð I, you have to distinguish between function word or content word 

- At beginning of function words always voiced  ð 

- at beginning of content words always voiceless θ 

-interdental fricatives before vowels mainly voiced weather,father, mother

- Exception: Greek/ Latin origin have voiceless I TH I before vowel

method, author, sympathy


interdental fricatives at the end of words you have to know: 

bath         bɑːθ

bathe       beɪð

wrath       rɒθ ‖ rɑːθ

scythe     saɪð



Q:

Function word

A:

- little lexical meaning

   -> expresses grammatical relationships

- prepositions (of, at, in)

- pronouns (they, them)

- determiners (the, that)

- conjunctions ( and, that )

- auxiliary verbs ( have, be)

- particles ( no, not)



Q:

Classification

A:

lat.: consonare: to sound with 

- according to three pieces 

-> the place of articulation: where is the vocal tract obstructed

-> the voicing whether it is voiced or voiceless 

-> the manner of articulation: how the vocal tract is obstructed


- only sound with vowel sound 

Q:

 I ɜː II ɝː I 

A:

-cental vowel

- only in RP I ɜː I

- only in GA I ɝː I

- long vowel

- tongue same position as I ə I, i.e. in the middle of the mouth

- "long schwa"

- only in RP occurs before historic I r I 

- in GenAm r- coloured the symbol for which is I ɝː I 


<er>,<ea>, <ir>, <ur>, <or>, <our> r richtig betonen in GenAm

her, were      hɜː ‖ hɝː      wɜː‖wɝ: 

early, earth  ɜːlɪ ‖ ɝːlːɪ      ɜːθ ‖ ɝːθ 

word, world

journey, journalist


BEWARE

for I ɜː I  or  I ɝː I NO ROUNDING OF LIPS!

Germans often do it!

<Where > and <Were> kept distinct!

"Where were you"   weə wɜː juː ‖ weᵊr wɝː juː 


Q:

ʌ

A:

- but sound 

- short sound

- similar position for I ə I and I ɜː I

  -> e.g. in middle of of your mouth, only that its slightly pressed on 

- many ( eg. German) realise it as low front I a I but it is different

   -> germans tend to say * matʃ instead of I mʌtʃ  I

- historically I ʌ I from I ʊ I

- some dialects still use  I ʊ I

- presence or absence of I ʌ I is most reliable indicator to distinguish between northern and southern English accent 

   -e.g.: Yorkshire: Northern I bʊs I

                               Southern I bʌs I 


- <u>,<o>, <ou>, <oo>

luck, run

money, month,

<son> and <sun> same = sʌn 

country, touch

blood, flood= spelling of I ʌ I presents anomaly

Before <m>, <n>, <v>  I ʌ I is mostly spelled I o I , <some>

Not always

<some>, <come> I sʌm I,I kʌm I  but <common> I kɒmən II kɑːmən I 

< one, come, some, does, done, nothing, love >


problem: < monk, sponge, monkey >

right to pronounce : I mʌŋk, spʌndʒ, mʌŋkɪ I

Q:

Manner

A:

main:

- plosive          <peter>

- affricates      <change> (-> only these two)

- fricatives       <vice>

- nasals            <man>


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