Organizational Behaviour at Universität Duisburg-Essen | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Organizational Behaviour an der Universität Duisburg-Essen

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

relationship between attitudes and behavior

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Intuition: Behavior follows attitudes
▪ But: Attitudes (also) follow behavior
▪ Effects of cognitive dissonance
Any incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes
or between behavior and attitudes
▪ Desire to reduce dissonance
• Importance of the elements creating it
• Degree of influence we believe we have over
them
• Rewards of dissonance
▪ Attitudes predict future behavior

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

which variables moderate the relationship
between attitudes and behavior

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Importance

• Attitudes reflect our fundamental values, self-interest, or
identification with individuals or groups we value
• Strong relationship to our behavior
▪ Correspondence to behavior
• Specific attitudes tend to predict specific behavior
• General attitudes tend to best predict general behavior
Attitude

▪ Accessibility
▪ Presence of social pressures
▪ Direct experience with the attitude

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

work-related attitudes

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Job satisfaction: A positive feeling about one`s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
▪ Job involvement: The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and
considers performance important to self-worth.
▪ Psychological empowerment: Employees' belief in the degree to which they affect their work environment,
their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy in their work.
▪ Organizational commitment: The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization
and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
▪ Perceived organizational support: The degree to which employees believe an organization values their
contribution and cares about their well-being.
▪ Employee engagement: An individual`s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work
he or she does.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

popular approaches to measure job satisfaction

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Single global rating 

• Response to one question 

• Captures the essence “How satisfied are you with your job?” 


▪ Summation of job facets 

• Identifies key elements in a job • May leave out some important data “Please rate the following statements. My job involves pleasant work…” 


▪ Both methods are helpful and applicable 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Job satisfaction is not just about job conditions 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Interesting job 

• Training, variety, independence, control, … 

▪ Social context of the workplace 

• Interdependence, feedback, social support 

▪ Personality 

• People who have positive core self-evaluations, who believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satisfied with their jobs 

• Those with negative core self-evaluations set less ambitious goals and are more likely to give up when confronting difficulties 

▪ Pay 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

There are different possibilities for employees to show satisfaction or dissatisfaction 


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▪ Exit 

• Behavior directed toward leaving the organization 

• Looking for a new position, resigning 

▪ Voice 

• Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions 

• Suggesting improvements, discussing problems, …

 ▪ Loyalty 

• Passively waiting for conditions to improve 

• Speaking up for the organization 

• Trusting the organization and its management 

▪ Neglect 

• Allowing conditions to worsen 

• Lateness, reduced effort, … 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Managers need to know how to measure personality 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Managers can use personality tests because they are useful in hiring decisions and help managers forecast who is best for a job 


▪ Self-report surveys 

• Individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors 

• Requires a well-constructed survey 

• Respondent might lie 

• Accuracy


▪ Observer-rating surveys 

• Provide an independent assessment of personality


▪ Implication: use both 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Most used personality-assessment instrument in the world 

▪ 100-question personality test

▪ Taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types 


● Extroverted versus introverted. 

Extroverted individuals are outgoing, sociable and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.


● Sensing versus intuitive. 

Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the ‘big picture’.


● Thinking versus feeling. 

Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.


● Judging versus perceiving. 

Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The Big Five Personality Model 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Extraversion 

• Captures our comfort level with relationships

• extraversion <=> introversion 


▪ Agreeable 

• Refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others 

• Cooperative, warm, trusting <=> Cold, disagreeable, antagonistic 


▪ Conscientiousness 

• Measure of reliability 

• Responsible, organized, dependable, persistent  Easily distracted, disorganized, unreliable 


▪ Emotional stability 

• Taps a person`s ability to withstand stress 

• calm, self-confident, secure <=> nervous, anxious, depressed, insecure


 ▪ Openness to experience 

• Addresses range of interests and fascination 

creative, curious, artistically sensitive <=> conventional, find comfort in the familiar 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Values are important for understanding people's attitudes and motivation 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation 

▪ Influence attitudes and behaviors 

▪ We can predict people’s reactions based on understanding values 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

shortcuts in judging others 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Selective perception 

• Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived 

• Since we can’t observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception 


Halo effect 

• The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic 


Stereotyping

• Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs 

• A means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the main components of attitudes?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cognitive = evaluation
My supervisor gave a promotion to a
coworker who deserved it less than me.
My supervisor is unfair.


Affective = feeling
I dislike my supervisor!

Behavioral = action
I’m looking for other work; I’ve
complained about my supervisor to
anyone who would listen.

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Organizational Behaviour Kurs an der Universität Duisburg-Essen - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

relationship between attitudes and behavior

A:

▪ Intuition: Behavior follows attitudes
▪ But: Attitudes (also) follow behavior
▪ Effects of cognitive dissonance
Any incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes
or between behavior and attitudes
▪ Desire to reduce dissonance
• Importance of the elements creating it
• Degree of influence we believe we have over
them
• Rewards of dissonance
▪ Attitudes predict future behavior

Q:

which variables moderate the relationship
between attitudes and behavior

A:

▪ Importance

• Attitudes reflect our fundamental values, self-interest, or
identification with individuals or groups we value
• Strong relationship to our behavior
▪ Correspondence to behavior
• Specific attitudes tend to predict specific behavior
• General attitudes tend to best predict general behavior
Attitude

▪ Accessibility
▪ Presence of social pressures
▪ Direct experience with the attitude

Q:

work-related attitudes

A:

▪ Job satisfaction: A positive feeling about one`s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
▪ Job involvement: The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and
considers performance important to self-worth.
▪ Psychological empowerment: Employees' belief in the degree to which they affect their work environment,
their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy in their work.
▪ Organizational commitment: The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization
and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
▪ Perceived organizational support: The degree to which employees believe an organization values their
contribution and cares about their well-being.
▪ Employee engagement: An individual`s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work
he or she does.

Q:

popular approaches to measure job satisfaction

A:

▪ Single global rating 

• Response to one question 

• Captures the essence “How satisfied are you with your job?” 


▪ Summation of job facets 

• Identifies key elements in a job • May leave out some important data “Please rate the following statements. My job involves pleasant work…” 


▪ Both methods are helpful and applicable 

Q:

Job satisfaction is not just about job conditions 


A:

▪ Interesting job 

• Training, variety, independence, control, … 

▪ Social context of the workplace 

• Interdependence, feedback, social support 

▪ Personality 

• People who have positive core self-evaluations, who believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satisfied with their jobs 

• Those with negative core self-evaluations set less ambitious goals and are more likely to give up when confronting difficulties 

▪ Pay 

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Q:

There are different possibilities for employees to show satisfaction or dissatisfaction 


A:

▪ Exit 

• Behavior directed toward leaving the organization 

• Looking for a new position, resigning 

▪ Voice 

• Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions 

• Suggesting improvements, discussing problems, …

 ▪ Loyalty 

• Passively waiting for conditions to improve 

• Speaking up for the organization 

• Trusting the organization and its management 

▪ Neglect 

• Allowing conditions to worsen 

• Lateness, reduced effort, … 


Q:

Managers need to know how to measure personality 


A:

▪ Managers can use personality tests because they are useful in hiring decisions and help managers forecast who is best for a job 


▪ Self-report surveys 

• Individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors 

• Requires a well-constructed survey 

• Respondent might lie 

• Accuracy


▪ Observer-rating surveys 

• Provide an independent assessment of personality


▪ Implication: use both 

Q:

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 


A:

▪ Most used personality-assessment instrument in the world 

▪ 100-question personality test

▪ Taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types 


● Extroverted versus introverted. 

Extroverted individuals are outgoing, sociable and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.


● Sensing versus intuitive. 

Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the ‘big picture’.


● Thinking versus feeling. 

Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.


● Judging versus perceiving. 

Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.

Q:

The Big Five Personality Model 


A:

▪ Extraversion 

• Captures our comfort level with relationships

• extraversion <=> introversion 


▪ Agreeable 

• Refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others 

• Cooperative, warm, trusting <=> Cold, disagreeable, antagonistic 


▪ Conscientiousness 

• Measure of reliability 

• Responsible, organized, dependable, persistent  Easily distracted, disorganized, unreliable 


▪ Emotional stability 

• Taps a person`s ability to withstand stress 

• calm, self-confident, secure <=> nervous, anxious, depressed, insecure


 ▪ Openness to experience 

• Addresses range of interests and fascination 

creative, curious, artistically sensitive <=> conventional, find comfort in the familiar 

Q:

Values are important for understanding people's attitudes and motivation 

A:

▪ Lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation 

▪ Influence attitudes and behaviors 

▪ We can predict people’s reactions based on understanding values 

Q:

shortcuts in judging others 


A:

Selective perception 

• Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived 

• Since we can’t observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception 


Halo effect 

• The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic 


Stereotyping

• Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs 

• A means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency 

Q:

What are the main components of attitudes?

A:

Cognitive = evaluation
My supervisor gave a promotion to a
coworker who deserved it less than me.
My supervisor is unfair.


Affective = feeling
I dislike my supervisor!

Behavioral = action
I’m looking for other work; I’ve
complained about my supervisor to
anyone who would listen.

Organizational Behaviour

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