Schizophrenie at Universität Bochum | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Schizophrenie an der Universität Bochum

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positive and negative Symptoms 

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1. positive Symptoms

- more activiation 

- added to perception in comparison to normal person 

- hallucinations, delusions, etc. 


2. negative Symptoms 

- less neural activation

- something is missing in comparison to normal person 

- deminished emotional expression, avolition (decrease in motivated self initated purposefull movement) 


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Definition 

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prototypic disease within schizophrenia spectrum disorders 

- most studied disease in psychopathologic research 


NO SINGLE SYMPTOM is pathogonomic

- diagnosis due to costellation of sings associated with impaired social functioning  


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SZ in DSM-V

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essential features: mixture of two or more characteristic "Criterion A" symptoms present for signficant portion of time during one month, with some signs persisting for at least 6 months 


5 subtypes

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SZ in ICD-10

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​diagnosis requires duration of symptoms formore than one month 

- does not require social dysfunction 

- more empathisis on first-rank symptoms 

- 8 subgroups 

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Delusions 

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fixed beliefs that are not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence 

- content can vary


persecutory delusions, referential delusions, gradiose delusions, erotomania delusions


Bizzare (clearly implausible and not understandable for others) vs. nonbizzare


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Hallucinations 

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perception-like experiences that occur without external stimulus 

​- vivid, clear, like normal perceptions and not under volnuntary control 


auditory hallucinations are the most common (threating or insulting voices) 

1. elementary --> sounds (hissing, whisteling, extendet tone) 

2. complex --> voices, music, may familiar or unfamiliar, aggressive vs. friendly 



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Disorganized thinking

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- inferred from individuals speech 

- topic switching (derailment or loose associations) 

- tangentiality (answers might be obliquely related or completey unrelated) 



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Grossly disorganized or abnormal motor behavior 

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mainfests in different ways: 


catanoic behavior 

- decrease in reacitivty to environment 

- negativism, mutism and stupor 

- purposeless and excessive motor activity 

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Diagnostic features 

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No single symptom is pathogonomic for SZ 

- constellation of signs and symptoms associated with imnpaired social functioning 

- high heterogenity among patients, their symptoms will vary substancially 


- Diagnosis involves impairment in one or more major areas of functioning (Criterion B) 

- Some signs must persist for a continious period for at least six months  (Criterion C)


No radiological, laboratory or psychometric test for the diagnosis available 

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Cognitive deficits

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are common, strongly linked to vocational and functional impariment 

- problems in declarative memory, working memory, language, executive functions, processing speed

- also abnormalities in sensory processing and inhibitory capacity 



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Prevalence

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0.3-0.7% 

males are typically more affected than females 

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First rank symptoms of SZ

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1. Auditory hallucinations 

2. Broadcasting ot thoughts 

3. Controlled thoughts 

4. Delusional perceptions

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Q:

positive and negative Symptoms 

A:

1. positive Symptoms

- more activiation 

- added to perception in comparison to normal person 

- hallucinations, delusions, etc. 


2. negative Symptoms 

- less neural activation

- something is missing in comparison to normal person 

- deminished emotional expression, avolition (decrease in motivated self initated purposefull movement) 


Q:

Definition 

A:

prototypic disease within schizophrenia spectrum disorders 

- most studied disease in psychopathologic research 


NO SINGLE SYMPTOM is pathogonomic

- diagnosis due to costellation of sings associated with impaired social functioning  


Q:

SZ in DSM-V

A:

essential features: mixture of two or more characteristic "Criterion A" symptoms present for signficant portion of time during one month, with some signs persisting for at least 6 months 


5 subtypes

Q:

SZ in ICD-10

A:

​diagnosis requires duration of symptoms formore than one month 

- does not require social dysfunction 

- more empathisis on first-rank symptoms 

- 8 subgroups 

Q:

Delusions 

A:

fixed beliefs that are not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence 

- content can vary


persecutory delusions, referential delusions, gradiose delusions, erotomania delusions


Bizzare (clearly implausible and not understandable for others) vs. nonbizzare


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Hallucinations 

A:

perception-like experiences that occur without external stimulus 

​- vivid, clear, like normal perceptions and not under volnuntary control 


auditory hallucinations are the most common (threating or insulting voices) 

1. elementary --> sounds (hissing, whisteling, extendet tone) 

2. complex --> voices, music, may familiar or unfamiliar, aggressive vs. friendly 



Q:

Disorganized thinking

A:

- inferred from individuals speech 

- topic switching (derailment or loose associations) 

- tangentiality (answers might be obliquely related or completey unrelated) 



Q:

Grossly disorganized or abnormal motor behavior 

A:

mainfests in different ways: 


catanoic behavior 

- decrease in reacitivty to environment 

- negativism, mutism and stupor 

- purposeless and excessive motor activity 

Q:

Diagnostic features 

A:

No single symptom is pathogonomic for SZ 

- constellation of signs and symptoms associated with imnpaired social functioning 

- high heterogenity among patients, their symptoms will vary substancially 


- Diagnosis involves impairment in one or more major areas of functioning (Criterion B) 

- Some signs must persist for a continious period for at least six months  (Criterion C)


No radiological, laboratory or psychometric test for the diagnosis available 

Q:

Cognitive deficits

A:

are common, strongly linked to vocational and functional impariment 

- problems in declarative memory, working memory, language, executive functions, processing speed

- also abnormalities in sensory processing and inhibitory capacity 



Q:

Prevalence

A:

0.3-0.7% 

males are typically more affected than females 

Q:

First rank symptoms of SZ

A:

1. Auditory hallucinations 

2. Broadcasting ot thoughts 

3. Controlled thoughts 

4. Delusional perceptions

Schizophrenie

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