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Lernmaterialien für Neurology an der Universität Bochum

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generel information 

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- most common neurodegenerative disease  

- impairs the five cognitive functions 

- especially language and memory 

- more common in higher age --> very important topic due to increasing mean age of population (more cases in future) 

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Braak staging system 

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- seven different stages of brain atrophy 

- atrophy becomes more severe from one stage to the other 

- from stage III or IV on, funcional problems become visible 

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Stages of AD

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1-3 --> mostly not recocnizable

-  little to no symptomatic occurence 


4 -> Mild AD, milestone

- beginning of problems wth task sequencing, difficulties in everyday life 

- patient might not be aware of his condition 


Stage 5 


Stage 6 --> loss of automoy and time perspective 

- inability to take care of personal needs without help, constant monitoring necessary 


Stage 7 --> last stage

- imparied movement 

​- little to no speach ability 

- more succeptable to infections --> mostly cause of death 

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Risk factors

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1. Age 

2. Gender (?)

3. insufficient cognitiv stimulation/education at a young age 

4. genetic presdisposition 

- down-syndrom (Chromosom 21 holds Amyloid gene, earlier onset and more rapid progress) 

- mutations on chromosme 14 and 19

- APOE4 Allele 

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plaques 

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extracellulare collections of amyloid protein cores 

- APP in cellmembran gets cut the wrong way, can not be disposed anymore 

- is exported outside the cell where it sticks together with others and form plaques 

- disturb neural connections and lead to inflamations 


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Cause of AD 

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persih of neurons in frontal neurocortex

- signs: plaques (outside of neurons) and tangles (inside neurons)

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Neurons of the basal ganglia 

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mostly medium spiny neurons 

- lot of synaptic connections 

- short axons but a lot of dendrites 

- collect huge amounts of incoming information from the cortex in one outgoing signal 

- key role: problems with these neurons mean problems with the whloe system 


Convergence!

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basal ganglia loops 

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1. motor loop 

- Motercortex -> Putamen -> Globus palidus -> Thalamus -> Cortex 


2. libic loop 

limbic system -> ventral Striatum -> ventral Pallidum -> Thalamus -> Cortex 


3. prefrontal loop (association of limbic and motoral information) 

- PFC -> Caudate -> Globus Pallidus -> Thalamus -> PFC 

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components 

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​1. Striatum

- Neostriatum: caudate nucleus,  Putamen, ventral striatum 

- Paleostriatum: Globus pallidus external and internal 

2. Substantia nigra

- produces Dopamine, therefore black color  

3. Subthalamic nucleus 


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Tasks 

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Basal ganglia are involved in goal-directed voluntary movement

- Motor learning 

- Motor pattern selection 

build the conection between the cortex and the spibnal cord --> communication between those structures 

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​tangles 

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- inside of the cell 

- malfunctioning tau-protein (normally supports mictorubuli) 

- accumulate as tangles at the axon of neurons and disturbe the communication 

- neurons without functioning microtubuli undergo Apoptosis

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Key aspects 

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- neural sturctures in the midbrain 

- involved in the control of movement --> gating proper initiation of the movement 

- important neurotransmitter: Dopamine 

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Q:

generel information 

A:

- most common neurodegenerative disease  

- impairs the five cognitive functions 

- especially language and memory 

- more common in higher age --> very important topic due to increasing mean age of population (more cases in future) 

Q:

Braak staging system 

A:

- seven different stages of brain atrophy 

- atrophy becomes more severe from one stage to the other 

- from stage III or IV on, funcional problems become visible 

Q:

Stages of AD

A:

1-3 --> mostly not recocnizable

-  little to no symptomatic occurence 


4 -> Mild AD, milestone

- beginning of problems wth task sequencing, difficulties in everyday life 

- patient might not be aware of his condition 


Stage 5 


Stage 6 --> loss of automoy and time perspective 

- inability to take care of personal needs without help, constant monitoring necessary 


Stage 7 --> last stage

- imparied movement 

​- little to no speach ability 

- more succeptable to infections --> mostly cause of death 

Q:

Risk factors

A:

1. Age 

2. Gender (?)

3. insufficient cognitiv stimulation/education at a young age 

4. genetic presdisposition 

- down-syndrom (Chromosom 21 holds Amyloid gene, earlier onset and more rapid progress) 

- mutations on chromosme 14 and 19

- APOE4 Allele 

Q:

plaques 

A:

extracellulare collections of amyloid protein cores 

- APP in cellmembran gets cut the wrong way, can not be disposed anymore 

- is exported outside the cell where it sticks together with others and form plaques 

- disturb neural connections and lead to inflamations 


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Cause of AD 

A:

persih of neurons in frontal neurocortex

- signs: plaques (outside of neurons) and tangles (inside neurons)

Q:

Neurons of the basal ganglia 

A:

mostly medium spiny neurons 

- lot of synaptic connections 

- short axons but a lot of dendrites 

- collect huge amounts of incoming information from the cortex in one outgoing signal 

- key role: problems with these neurons mean problems with the whloe system 


Convergence!

Q:

basal ganglia loops 

A:

1. motor loop 

- Motercortex -> Putamen -> Globus palidus -> Thalamus -> Cortex 


2. libic loop 

limbic system -> ventral Striatum -> ventral Pallidum -> Thalamus -> Cortex 


3. prefrontal loop (association of limbic and motoral information) 

- PFC -> Caudate -> Globus Pallidus -> Thalamus -> PFC 

Q:

components 

A:

​1. Striatum

- Neostriatum: caudate nucleus,  Putamen, ventral striatum 

- Paleostriatum: Globus pallidus external and internal 

2. Substantia nigra

- produces Dopamine, therefore black color  

3. Subthalamic nucleus 


Q:

Tasks 

A:

Basal ganglia are involved in goal-directed voluntary movement

- Motor learning 

- Motor pattern selection 

build the conection between the cortex and the spibnal cord --> communication between those structures 

Q:

​tangles 

A:

- inside of the cell 

- malfunctioning tau-protein (normally supports mictorubuli) 

- accumulate as tangles at the axon of neurons and disturbe the communication 

- neurons without functioning microtubuli undergo Apoptosis

Q:

Key aspects 

A:

- neural sturctures in the midbrain 

- involved in the control of movement --> gating proper initiation of the movement 

- important neurotransmitter: Dopamine 

Neurology

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