Genes And Behavior at Universität Bochum | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Genes and Behavior an der Universität Bochum

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Transkription 

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DNA is transformed into mRNA

- inside nucleus 

- from 3' end to 5' end 

- Nucleotides are added, that are freely in cell plasm 

- T is replaced by U (bases: Adenin, Cytosin, Guanin, Uracil) 

- Exons are transkripted at first --> RNA --> Splicing --> RNA 

- mRNA then transported out of the nucleus  

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Translation

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- process of turing mRNA sequences into Proteins 

- outside of nucleus in Ribosomes of ER (3 bases are translated into one aminoacid) 

- aminoacids are brought by tRNA 

- aminoacids add up to a certain protin 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Genetic units

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​Genome 

- complete number of all Chromosomes 

- found completely in all cells of the body, except gangmets 


Chromosomes 

- organisations of Genes 


Genes

- units of the DNA 


Nucleotides 

- bases of the DNA with ribose-phosphate backbone 

(A, T, C, G)




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research techniques 

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Twin studies

1. momozygotic twins --> 100% same genetics, 100% same enviornment (?)

2. dizygotic twins --> 50% same genetics, 100% same enviornment 


Adoption studies

--> differnet geentic makeup but same environment 

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DNA 

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- genetic information found within the nucleus 

- structure: double helix --> strands are made up of nucleotides 

- nucleotides: connection of phosphate group, sugar (desoxyribose), and base 

- one string 3'-5', other one 5' to 3' --> always inverse complimentary 


3' End: Carbon nr. 3 is not bound to another nucleotide 

5' End: Carbon nr. 5 is free 


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Bases of the DNA

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Adenin 

Thymin 

Guanin 

Cytosin 


always same pairings 

- Adenin = Thymin (two bonding points)

- Guanin _= Cytosin (three bonding points- --> stronger bond) 


Adenin und Guanin --> purines (two ring structure) 

​Cytosin and Thymin --> pyrimides (one-string structure) 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Exons and Introns 

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only 2% of DNA actually code for Proteins 

--> Exons 


others are Start-/Stop Codons --> signal beginning and end of Transkription 

Start: AUG   Stop: UAA; UAG, UGA 


and Introns --> inactive collections of genes 

Introns get transkripted into RNA, then spliced out 

--> not part of mRNA  

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Chromosomes 

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units of DNA, thightly packed --> DNA is wrapped around histones 


- long arm (q-arm), short arm (p-arm)

- arms are connected by Centomer (Not the middle of the Chromosome)

​- End of arms: telomere 


Humans have 23 Chromosome pairs --> 46 in total 

22 are Autosomes 

1 pair are the Gonosomses --> sex determining (XY; XX)

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History of genetics 

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Charles Darwin (1859) --> first one to detect inherritage 


Francis Galton --> much research, introduction of term eugenetics (were used for bad --> Hitler) 


Mendel --> rules of genetic 


1950 --> DNA was made visible for the first time

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Replication of DNA 

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preceeds cell division, requeired for growth and development 


1. unwindig of the DNA 

2. breaking down of hydorgin bands between the bases 

3. DNA_Polymerase adds complementary bases to the strings 

4. Daughter strings are complimentary copies of the mother string 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Prokaryotes 

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unicellulare 

non-membrane bound structure 

no nucleus --> DNA freely in cytoplasm 


(bacteria)

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Behavior 

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organisms activity in response to external and internal stimuli 

- objectively observebal activities (actions) 

- introspectively observebal activities (thoughts) 

- nonconcious processes 

Lösung ausblenden
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Genes and Behavior Kurs an der Universität Bochum - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Transkription 

A:

DNA is transformed into mRNA

- inside nucleus 

- from 3' end to 5' end 

- Nucleotides are added, that are freely in cell plasm 

- T is replaced by U (bases: Adenin, Cytosin, Guanin, Uracil) 

- Exons are transkripted at first --> RNA --> Splicing --> RNA 

- mRNA then transported out of the nucleus  

Q:

Translation

A:

- process of turing mRNA sequences into Proteins 

- outside of nucleus in Ribosomes of ER (3 bases are translated into one aminoacid) 

- aminoacids are brought by tRNA 

- aminoacids add up to a certain protin 

Q:

Genetic units

A:

​Genome 

- complete number of all Chromosomes 

- found completely in all cells of the body, except gangmets 


Chromosomes 

- organisations of Genes 


Genes

- units of the DNA 


Nucleotides 

- bases of the DNA with ribose-phosphate backbone 

(A, T, C, G)




Q:

research techniques 

A:

Twin studies

1. momozygotic twins --> 100% same genetics, 100% same enviornment (?)

2. dizygotic twins --> 50% same genetics, 100% same enviornment 


Adoption studies

--> differnet geentic makeup but same environment 

Q:

DNA 

A:

- genetic information found within the nucleus 

- structure: double helix --> strands are made up of nucleotides 

- nucleotides: connection of phosphate group, sugar (desoxyribose), and base 

- one string 3'-5', other one 5' to 3' --> always inverse complimentary 


3' End: Carbon nr. 3 is not bound to another nucleotide 

5' End: Carbon nr. 5 is free 


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Bases of the DNA

A:

Adenin 

Thymin 

Guanin 

Cytosin 


always same pairings 

- Adenin = Thymin (two bonding points)

- Guanin _= Cytosin (three bonding points- --> stronger bond) 


Adenin und Guanin --> purines (two ring structure) 

​Cytosin and Thymin --> pyrimides (one-string structure) 

Q:

Exons and Introns 

A:

only 2% of DNA actually code for Proteins 

--> Exons 


others are Start-/Stop Codons --> signal beginning and end of Transkription 

Start: AUG   Stop: UAA; UAG, UGA 


and Introns --> inactive collections of genes 

Introns get transkripted into RNA, then spliced out 

--> not part of mRNA  

Q:

Chromosomes 

A:

units of DNA, thightly packed --> DNA is wrapped around histones 


- long arm (q-arm), short arm (p-arm)

- arms are connected by Centomer (Not the middle of the Chromosome)

​- End of arms: telomere 


Humans have 23 Chromosome pairs --> 46 in total 

22 are Autosomes 

1 pair are the Gonosomses --> sex determining (XY; XX)

Q:

History of genetics 

A:

Charles Darwin (1859) --> first one to detect inherritage 


Francis Galton --> much research, introduction of term eugenetics (were used for bad --> Hitler) 


Mendel --> rules of genetic 


1950 --> DNA was made visible for the first time

Q:

Replication of DNA 

A:

preceeds cell division, requeired for growth and development 


1. unwindig of the DNA 

2. breaking down of hydorgin bands between the bases 

3. DNA_Polymerase adds complementary bases to the strings 

4. Daughter strings are complimentary copies of the mother string 


Q:

Prokaryotes 

A:

unicellulare 

non-membrane bound structure 

no nucleus --> DNA freely in cytoplasm 


(bacteria)

Q:

Behavior 

A:

organisms activity in response to external and internal stimuli 

- objectively observebal activities (actions) 

- introspectively observebal activities (thoughts) 

- nonconcious processes 

Genes and Behavior

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