Bipolar Disorder at Universität Bochum | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Bipolar Disorder an der Universität Bochum

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Bipolar II Disorder

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Diagnosis requieres

- at least one major depressive episode

- one hypomanic episode


As soon as manic episodes appear --> Bipolar I without exception 

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Manic episode 

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Period of abnormally and persitently elevated, expanisve or irritable mood 

- lasting at least 1 week and is present most of the day on almost all days 

- three key symptoms (restlessness, grandiosity, distractability, etc.)

- sufficently severe, leading to significant impairment in life or even hospitalization 

- canot be attributed to a substance or other medical condition 

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Hypomanic episode 

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distinct period of abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood

- lasting at least 4 consecutive days (shorter than full maniac phase) 

- at least three key symptoms 

- observebal by others, but not severe enough to cause impairment or hospitalization 

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Major Depressive Episode

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Key Symptoms: depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure

+ Insomina or hyersomnia

+ Pychomotor agitation or retardation 

+ Fatigue

+ feeling of worthlessness/inapropriat guilt

+ diminished ability to concentrate 

+ suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts 


- at least 5 symptoms ( one of the key ones + 4 others) need to be present for two weeks consitently every day most of the time 

- significantly distress or impairment 

- not due to drugs or other medical issues



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Manic episode symptoms 

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predominant mood is often irritability 

- especially if whishes are denied or substance abuse 

rapid mood shifts --> liability 

engagement in multiple overlapping new projects, mostly without appropriat knowlede 

Inflated self esteem and grandiosity lead to overexpectaion and dangerous behavior 

decreased need for sleep

rapid speech , coversations are held in an intrusive manner 

flight of ideas 

increase in goal directed activity 

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Major Depression Symptoms 

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increased irritablility 

reduced interest 

changes in appetit and sleep pattern 

- some eat more/sleep more, some eat less/sleep less 

decreased energy, tiredness, fatigue 

sense of worthlessness and guilt --> ruminations of delusional proportions 

inability to think, concentrate or make decisions 

memory dificulties 


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Features suporting the diagnosis of Mania

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Rejection of diagnosis and treatment during manic episode --> can lead to resistance 


sudden, drastic changes of apperance --> more sexual 


hostile or threatening behavior towards others --> can lead to serious consequences 

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Prevalence BPD I

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0.6% in US, range from 0 --> 0.6% for other countries 

1:1 female-male ratio

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Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II 

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Bipolar II is not a less severe form of BPD I

- greater chronicity 

- higher duration of depressive episodes 



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Bipolar II common features

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- more excessive depressive episodes (necessary for diagnosis)

- less intense maniac phases (hypomania)


Impulsivity --> can contribute to suicidal attempts 

hightend levels of creativity 

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Prevalence of Bipolar II disorder 

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12-month prevalence: 0,3% 

higher rates in young people and females

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Bipolar I Disorder

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modern understanding of "manic-depressive disorder" 


Necessary for diganosis: Manic episode 

- depressive episode usually also part of disease, but not requiered for diagnosis 

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Q:

Bipolar II Disorder

A:

Diagnosis requieres

- at least one major depressive episode

- one hypomanic episode


As soon as manic episodes appear --> Bipolar I without exception 

Q:

Manic episode 

A:

Period of abnormally and persitently elevated, expanisve or irritable mood 

- lasting at least 1 week and is present most of the day on almost all days 

- three key symptoms (restlessness, grandiosity, distractability, etc.)

- sufficently severe, leading to significant impairment in life or even hospitalization 

- canot be attributed to a substance or other medical condition 

Q:

Hypomanic episode 

A:

distinct period of abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood

- lasting at least 4 consecutive days (shorter than full maniac phase) 

- at least three key symptoms 

- observebal by others, but not severe enough to cause impairment or hospitalization 

Q:

Major Depressive Episode

A:

Key Symptoms: depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure

+ Insomina or hyersomnia

+ Pychomotor agitation or retardation 

+ Fatigue

+ feeling of worthlessness/inapropriat guilt

+ diminished ability to concentrate 

+ suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts 


- at least 5 symptoms ( one of the key ones + 4 others) need to be present for two weeks consitently every day most of the time 

- significantly distress or impairment 

- not due to drugs or other medical issues



Q:

Manic episode symptoms 

A:

predominant mood is often irritability 

- especially if whishes are denied or substance abuse 

rapid mood shifts --> liability 

engagement in multiple overlapping new projects, mostly without appropriat knowlede 

Inflated self esteem and grandiosity lead to overexpectaion and dangerous behavior 

decreased need for sleep

rapid speech , coversations are held in an intrusive manner 

flight of ideas 

increase in goal directed activity 

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Q:

Major Depression Symptoms 

A:

increased irritablility 

reduced interest 

changes in appetit and sleep pattern 

- some eat more/sleep more, some eat less/sleep less 

decreased energy, tiredness, fatigue 

sense of worthlessness and guilt --> ruminations of delusional proportions 

inability to think, concentrate or make decisions 

memory dificulties 


Q:

Features suporting the diagnosis of Mania

A:

Rejection of diagnosis and treatment during manic episode --> can lead to resistance 


sudden, drastic changes of apperance --> more sexual 


hostile or threatening behavior towards others --> can lead to serious consequences 

Q:

Prevalence BPD I

A:

0.6% in US, range from 0 --> 0.6% for other countries 

1:1 female-male ratio

Q:

Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II 

A:

Bipolar II is not a less severe form of BPD I

- greater chronicity 

- higher duration of depressive episodes 



Q:

Bipolar II common features

A:

- more excessive depressive episodes (necessary for diagnosis)

- less intense maniac phases (hypomania)


Impulsivity --> can contribute to suicidal attempts 

hightend levels of creativity 

Q:

Prevalence of Bipolar II disorder 

A:

12-month prevalence: 0,3% 

higher rates in young people and females

Q:

Bipolar I Disorder

A:

modern understanding of "manic-depressive disorder" 


Necessary for diganosis: Manic episode 

- depressive episode usually also part of disease, but not requiered for diagnosis 

Bipolar Disorder

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