Customer Experience Management Zusammenfassungen auf
Universität Bielefeld Niklar Barwitz & Peter Maas - Understanding the Omnichannel Customer Journey: Determinants of Interaction Choice Product: Locations: Germany, Switzerland, Austria Steps:
1. Existing knowledge
2. Conceptualization - expert interviews & Focus group with 13 customers
3. Interview guide development - 2. results to design the guide for customer interviews
- > Customer journey - 8 phases
Need recognition search evaluation purchase in-force (contract duration) claim contract adaption contract termination
4. Further data collection - interviewer asked for reasons (attributes) of the choice; reveal consequences and values
5. Data analysis - attribute-consequence-value relationships (ladders); relation to existing themes in the literature
6. Researcher triangulation: internal consistency of coding and trustworthiness assessment
7. Refinement and interpretation - Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) and interpretation of results
1. What drives
customers' interaction choices along the customer journey?
2. What are the underlying reasons for
customer journey patterns?
3. How to more effectively (non-descriptively)
segment omnichannel customers and predict segment affiliation? suggests a segmentation based on types of value-in-use linked to specific psychographics rests on customer personalities -> relatively stable along the customer journey segmentation does not have an inherent post-hoc focus, since no observations are required for the prediction
of segment affiliation
-> interactions were perceived as two-dimensional & concurrent choices
1. potential channels (interaction partner (who?) Personal channels (agent broker, family & friends, car sales representative) Semi-Personal channels (service center, social media) Impersonal channels (website/online portal, mobile app, comparison site) 2. means of interaction (how?) high interactivity means of interaction (in person, telephone, online-chat)-> synchronous low interactivity means of interaction (letter, email, pc/laptop, smartphone/tablet) -> asynchronous A1. Singular interaction choices Types of value-in-use/values: actual usefulness, benefits and value derived from customers' interaction behaviour relatively stable across the customer journey 1. Utilitarian practical, functional, instrumental benefits evaluate their interaction options in every instance dependence on situational factors largest number of channels & means of interactions most likely to use impersonal channels & less interactive means of interaction -> utilitarian benefits (remote access) psychographic consequence: having choice, information attainment, time pressure 2. Hedonic experiential, approving & enjoyment-related benefits high interactivity & engagement (personal or semi-personal channel -> content-rich discussions) psychographic consequence: shopping enjoyment, shopping/bargainig excitement, social approval 3. Cost/Sacrifice minimizing reduce monetary & non-monetary costs impersonal channels & less interactive means of interaction (but less than utilitarian customers) switch channels less frequently to avoid switching-costs (e.g. re-entering data) psychographic concequence: saving money, reducing sacrifices 4. Relational personal relationship (social benefits) personal channels (they also stick to those channels -> loyalty is attached primarily to individuals rather institutions) highly interactive means of communication psychographic consequence: linked to trust -> important in building lasting relationships
risk aversion is also a psychographic consequence, which is linked with multiple values depending on the exact type of risk under consideration.
Other Consequences that influence customers' interaction choice regardless of the phase not clearly related to any type of value not stable A2. Acquaintance (channel Knowledge & experience) (Bekanntheit) acquaintance with channels and means of interaction outside the current journey positively influenced reengagement A3. Purpose channel choice depends on the purpose of the choicell e.g. website/comparison site-> information gathering e.g. friends/family -> reassure process e.g. personal channels -> sougth assistance to advise on the choice of a complex service e.g. less interactive interactions -> reduce unpleasant situations like contract terminations A4. Product/Service Knowledge customers with detailed knowledge ->choose channels and means of interaction that allows them to capitalize on this knowledge customers with little knowledge ->choose options that were mroe supportive and better suited to fill knowledge gaps A5. Service Interest interest in the service/product drives interaction choice interested customers tend to prefer mean of interaction that allowed them to gather rich information on market developments using multiple interactions -> substantive discussion B. Inertia (Trägheit) B1. Inertia per se interaction choices in the prior phase positive influenced the use of the same channels and means of interaction in the following phase effect stronger for channels B2. Interaction satisfaction satisfaction in the prior phase -> influences inertia B3. Intention to Reengage strenghtens inertia intention to reengage the same channel or means of interaction further supports interaction satisfaction C. Customer Journey Patterns why participants swith channels in the pre-to-post purchase pahses C.1. Research Shopping C.1.1. Attribute advantages of channels some channel attributes lead to specific advantages in pre-purchase vs. purchase some channels are better suited for information & evaluation some are better for actual purchase C.1.2. Synergies using a different channel pre-purchase to improve purchasing experience e.g. research options & make better decisions e.g. buying from a different channel C.1.3. Insufficient channel lock-in channel used in pre-purchase leads insufficiently to purchase e.g. there were legal and insurer policy based restrictions for some interactions -> not possible for customer to purchase directly through a comparison site even though customer had preferences for digital means of interaction they were forced to use physical letters C.1.4. Augmentation (Novel finding) information phase: customers engage in multiple interactions to augment the information received in one instance with information from other sources then narrowing down their selection to the one channel they retained for the purchase-> selection follows a purposeful augmentation C.2. Impersonalization/Interactivity reduction (Novel finding) purchase to post-purchase: switch from personal channel & highly interactive to semi/impersonal channel & less interactive means of interaction C.2.1. Task congruency typical post-purchase tasks: less personality & interactivity e.g. self-service & administrative tasks C.2.2. Transition/lock-in effects purchase to post-purchase: weak lock-in effects of personal channels & highly interactive means of interaction e.g. agents & brokers are incentivized for customer acquisition and retention as long as they do not sense risk or cross-selling potential: encourage customers to use other channels to save cost Managerial Implications invest in better integrating their channels & means of interactions -> so customer can switch seamlessly invest in information technology systems: availability of relevant information & align incentives throughout the organization with this objective service networks (due to number & intensity of interactions with channels outside the firm's areas of control) leverage segmentation approach but must identify and predict segment AFFILIATION of current and potential customer
Weitere ‘Kompetenz- und Selbstmanagement’ Lernmaterialien findest du kostenfrei auf
Melde dich kostenlos an und bekomme Zugang zu der kompletten Zusammenfassung und tausenden