Customer Experience Management at Universität Bielefeld | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Customer Experience Management an der Universität Bielefeld

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Customer journey
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• path that a customer follow with a firm during the purchase cycle across multiple touch points

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loyalty loop
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• part of the customer decision journey
• a trigger (during post-purchase) causes the customer to be a returning customer OR entering the pre-purchase phase where he considers alternatives again
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Brand-owned touch points
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• designed and managed by the firm
• under the firms control
• examples: brand owned media, marketing-mix
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Pre-purchase
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• customer‘s interaction with the brand and its environment BEFORE purchase
• behaviour: need recognition, consideration, and search
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Post-Purchase
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• usage and consumption
• post-purchase engagement
• service requests
• product itself is a touchpoint
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Touch Points
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• points/moments of contact between a potential customer and the company 
• touch points are assessed by customers and affect the perceived quality of the company
• interactions in each stage of the experience
• importance may differ in each stage depending on the product or customer journey
• attribution models help identify critical touch points at each stage for each customer 
-> determine how touch points can be influenced 
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Customer experience
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• customer journey with a firm overtime
• pre purchase, purchase, post purchase
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Partner-owned touch points
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• touchpoints that are jointly designed, managed or controlled by the firm and one or more of its partners
• e.g. marketing agencies, multichannel distribution partners, and communication channel partners
• usage of a firms loyalty partners leads to customers spending more on the focal firms services in the future (travel context, lemon & van wangenheim 2009)
• partner delivery network also important e.g. an evening out
• sometimes brand owned and partner owned touchpoints the same -> e.g. brand own app but depending on android/ios updates
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
 Customer-owned touchpoints
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• are customer actions that are part of the overall customer experience but that the firm, its partner, or others do not influence or control 
• e.g. pre-purchase phase (customer think about their own needs), purchase phase (e.g. choosing payment method), post-purchase phase (consumption)
• e.g. co-creators of value (independently or jointly with firms)


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Purchase
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• all interactions with the brand and its environment DURING purchase
• behaviors: coice, ordering, and payment
• most compressed and a lot of attention in the literature
• marketing activities, environment and atmosphere influence purchase decision
• extended digital environment
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Social/External/Independent touch points
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• other customers, peer influences, social environment, independent information sources, social media
-> independent information sources may be considered partner touch points such as amazon reviews because theyre aligned with the brand
• influences experience in all purchase stages
-> peers (all three)
-> other customers (purchase and post purchase)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
choice of one specific channel
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
determinants:
1. Channel Attributes that influence channel choice
• e.g. perceived price (online prices), quality (salesperson), convenience (distance, online-shopping), risk (online-payment, health risk offline), general availability (offline available)
-> relative importance, dependent on the customer

2. Customer characteristics that can drive the customer behavior
• e.g. product/service knowledge, past purchase behavior, socio-demographics, psychographics, social influence and channel exp. effects


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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Customer Experience Management Kurs an der Universität Bielefeld - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
Customer journey
A:
• path that a customer follow with a firm during the purchase cycle across multiple touch points

Q:
loyalty loop
A:
• part of the customer decision journey
• a trigger (during post-purchase) causes the customer to be a returning customer OR entering the pre-purchase phase where he considers alternatives again
Q:
Brand-owned touch points
A:
• designed and managed by the firm
• under the firms control
• examples: brand owned media, marketing-mix
Q:
Pre-purchase
A:
• customer‘s interaction with the brand and its environment BEFORE purchase
• behaviour: need recognition, consideration, and search
Q:
Post-Purchase
A:
• usage and consumption
• post-purchase engagement
• service requests
• product itself is a touchpoint
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Touch Points
A:
• points/moments of contact between a potential customer and the company 
• touch points are assessed by customers and affect the perceived quality of the company
• interactions in each stage of the experience
• importance may differ in each stage depending on the product or customer journey
• attribution models help identify critical touch points at each stage for each customer 
-> determine how touch points can be influenced 
Q:
Customer experience
A:
• customer journey with a firm overtime
• pre purchase, purchase, post purchase
Q:
Partner-owned touch points
A:
• touchpoints that are jointly designed, managed or controlled by the firm and one or more of its partners
• e.g. marketing agencies, multichannel distribution partners, and communication channel partners
• usage of a firms loyalty partners leads to customers spending more on the focal firms services in the future (travel context, lemon & van wangenheim 2009)
• partner delivery network also important e.g. an evening out
• sometimes brand owned and partner owned touchpoints the same -> e.g. brand own app but depending on android/ios updates
Q:
 Customer-owned touchpoints
A:
• are customer actions that are part of the overall customer experience but that the firm, its partner, or others do not influence or control 
• e.g. pre-purchase phase (customer think about their own needs), purchase phase (e.g. choosing payment method), post-purchase phase (consumption)
• e.g. co-creators of value (independently or jointly with firms)


Q:
Purchase
A:
• all interactions with the brand and its environment DURING purchase
• behaviors: coice, ordering, and payment
• most compressed and a lot of attention in the literature
• marketing activities, environment and atmosphere influence purchase decision
• extended digital environment
Q:
Social/External/Independent touch points
A:
• other customers, peer influences, social environment, independent information sources, social media
-> independent information sources may be considered partner touch points such as amazon reviews because theyre aligned with the brand
• influences experience in all purchase stages
-> peers (all three)
-> other customers (purchase and post purchase)

Q:
choice of one specific channel
A:
determinants:
1. Channel Attributes that influence channel choice
• e.g. perceived price (online prices), quality (salesperson), convenience (distance, online-shopping), risk (online-payment, health risk offline), general availability (offline available)
-> relative importance, dependent on the customer

2. Customer characteristics that can drive the customer behavior
• e.g. product/service knowledge, past purchase behavior, socio-demographics, psychographics, social influence and channel exp. effects


Customer Experience Management

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Eine der Customer Experience Management Zusammenfassungen auf StudySmarter | Universität Bielefeld

Niklar Barwitz & Peter Maas  - Understanding the Omnichannel Customer Journey: Determinants of Interaction Choice



Product:

  • Motor insurance


Locations:

  • Germany, Switzerland, Austria


Steps:

1. Existing knowledge

2. Conceptualization - expert interviews & Focus group with 13 customers

3. Interview guide development - 2. results to design the guide for customer interviews

- > Customer journey - 8 phases

  1. Need recognition
  2. search
  3. evaluation
  4. purchase
  5. in-force (contract duration)
  6. claim
  7. contract adaption
  8. contract termination

4. Further data collection - interviewer asked for reasons (attributes) of the choice; reveal consequences and values

5. Data analysis - attribute-consequence-value relationships (ladders); relation to existing themes in the literature

6. Researcher triangulation: internal consistency of coding and trustworthiness assessment

7. Refinement and interpretation - Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) and interpretation of results



1. What drives customers' interaction choices along the customer journey?

2. What are the underlying reasons for customer journey patterns?

3. How to more effectively (non-descriptively) segment omnichannel customers and predict segment affiliation?

  • suggests a segmentation based on types of value-in-use linked to specific psychographics
  • rests on customer personalities -> relatively stable along the customer journey
  • segmentation does not have an inherent post-hoc focus, since no observations are required for the prediction

                 of segment affiliation


-> interactions were perceived as two-dimensional & concurrent choices

1. potential channels (interaction partner (who?)

  • Personal channels (agent broker, family & friends, car sales representative)
  • Semi-Personal channels (service center, social media)
  • Impersonal channels (website/online portal, mobile app, comparison site)


2. means of interaction (how?)

  • high interactivity means of interaction (in person, telephone, online-chat)-> synchronous
  • low interactivity means of interaction (letter, email, pc/laptop, smartphone/tablet) -> asynchronous


A1. Singular interaction choices


Types of value-in-use/values:

  • actual usefulness, benefits and value derived from customers' interaction behaviour
  • relatively stable across the customer journey


1. Utilitarian

  • practical, functional, instrumental benefits
  • evaluate their interaction options in every instance
  • dependence on situational factors
  • largest number of channels & means of interactions
  • most likely to use impersonal channels & less interactive means of interaction -> utilitarian benefits (remote access)
  • psychographic consequence: having choice, information attainment, time pressure

2. Hedonic

  • experiential, approving & enjoyment-related benefits
  • high interactivity & engagement (personal or semi-personal channel -> content-rich discussions)
  • psychographic consequence: shopping enjoyment, shopping/bargainig excitement, social approval

3. Cost/Sacrifice minimizing

  • reduce monetary & non-monetary costs
  • impersonal channels & less interactive means of interaction (but less than utilitarian customers)
  • switch channels less frequently to avoid switching-costs (e.g. re-entering data)
  • psychographic concequence: saving money, reducing sacrifices

4. Relational 

  • personal relationship (social benefits)
  • personal channels (they also stick to those channels -> loyalty is attached primarily to individuals rather institutions)
  • highly interactive means of communication
  • psychographic consequence: linked to trust -> important in building lasting relationships


risk aversion is also a psychographic consequence, which is linked with multiple values depending on the exact type of risk under consideration.


Other Consequences that influence customers' interaction choice

  • regardless of the phase
  • not clearly related to any type of value
  • not stable


A2. Acquaintance (channel Knowledge & experience) (Bekanntheit)

  • acquaintance with channels and means of interaction outside the current journey positively influenced reengagement


A3. Purpose

  • channel choice depends on the purpose of the choicell
  • e.g. website/comparison site-> information gathering
  • e.g. friends/family -> reassure process
  • e.g. personal channels -> sougth assistance to advise on the choice of a complex service
  • e.g. less interactive interactions -> reduce unpleasant situations like contract terminations

A4. Product/Service Knowledge

  • customers with detailed knowledge ->choose channels and means of interaction that allows them to capitalize on             this knowledge
  • customers with little knowledge ->choose options that were mroe supportive and better suited to fill knowledge gaps

A5. Service Interest

  • interest in the service/product drives interaction choice
  • interested customers tend to prefer mean of interaction that allowed them to gather rich information on market                     developments
  • using multiple interactions -> substantive discussion


B. Inertia (Trägheit)

B1. Inertia per se

  • interaction choices in the prior phase positive influenced the use of the same channels and means of interaction in         the following phase
  • effect stronger for channels

B2. Interaction satisfaction

  • satisfaction in the prior phase -> influences inertia

B3. Intention to Reengage

  • strenghtens inertia
  • intention to reengage the same channel or means of interaction further  supports interaction satisfaction


C. Customer Journey Patterns

  • why participants swith channels in the pre-to-post purchase pahses


C.1. Research Shopping

C.1.1. Attribute advantages of channels

  • some channel attributes lead to specific advantages in pre-purchase vs. purchase
  • some channels are better suited for information & evaluation
  • some are better for actual purchase


C.1.2. Synergies

  • using a different channel pre-purchase to improve purchasing experience
  • e.g. research options & make better decisions
  • e.g. buying from a different channel


C.1.3. Insufficient channel lock-in

  • channel used in pre-purchase leads insufficiently to purchase
  • e.g. there were legal and insurer policy based restrictions for some interactions -> not possible for customer to                     purchase directly through a comparison site
  • even though customer had preferences for digital means of interaction they were forced to use physical letters


C.1.4. Augmentation (Novel finding)

  • information phase: customers engage in multiple interactions to augment the information received in one instance             with information from other sources
  • then narrowing down their selection to the one channel they retained for the purchase-> selection follows a purposeful     augmentation


C.2. Impersonalization/Interactivity reduction (Novel finding)

  • purchase to post-purchase: switch from personal channel & highly interactive to semi/impersonal channel & less                 interactive means of interaction


C.2.1. Task congruency

  • typical post-purchase tasks: less personality & interactivity
  • e.g. self-service & administrative tasks


C.2.2. Transition/lock-in effects

  • purchase to post-purchase: weak lock-in effects of personal channels & highly interactive means of interaction
  • e.g. agents & brokers are incentivized for customer acquisition and retention
  • as long as they do not sense risk or cross-selling potential: encourage customers to use other channels to save cost


Managerial Implications

  • invest in better integrating their channels & means of interactions -> so customer can switch seamlessly
  • invest in information technology systems: availability of relevant information & align incentives throughout the organization with this objective
  • service networks (due to number & intensity of interactions with channels outside the firm's areas of control)
  • leverage segmentation approach but must identify and predict segment AFFILIATION of current and potential                     customer


Customer Experience Management

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