American History critical thinking questions at Universität Bielefeld

Flashcards and summaries for American History critical thinking questions at the Universität Bielefeld

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course American History critical thinking questions at the Universität Bielefeld

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21. Was reconciliation between the American colonies and Great Britain possible in 1774? Why or why not?

Exemplary flashcards for American History critical thinking questions at the Universität Bielefeld on StudySmarter:

Why did the colonists react so much more strongly to the Stamp Act than to the Sugar Act? How did the principles that the Stamp Act raised continue to provide points of contention between colonists and the British government?

Exemplary flashcards for American History critical thinking questions at the Universität Bielefeld on StudySmarter:

History is filled with unintended consequences. How do the British government’s attempts to control and regulate the colonies during this tumultuous era provide a case in point? How did the aims of the British measure up against the results of their actions?

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33. In what ways does the United States Constitution manifest the principles of both republican and

democratic forms of government? In what ways does it deviate from those principles?

Exemplary flashcards for American History critical thinking questions at the Universität Bielefeld on StudySmarter:

35. Describe popular attitudes toward African Americans, women, and Indians in the wake of the

Revolution. In what ways did the established social and political order depend upon keeping members of these groups in their circumscribed roles? If those roles were to change, how would American society and politics have had to adjust?

Exemplary flashcards for American History critical thinking questions at the Universität Bielefeld on StudySmarter:

36. How did the process of creating and ratifying the Constitution, and the language of the Constitution itself, confirm the positions of African Americans, women, and Indians in the new republic? How did these roles compare to the stated goals of the republic?

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37. What were the circumstances that led to Shays’ Rebellion? What was the government’s response? Would this response have confirmed or negated the grievances of the participants in the uprising? Why?

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38. Describe Alexander Hamilton’s plans to address the nation’s financial woes. Which aspects proved most controversial, and why? What elements of the foundation Hamilton laid can still be found in the system today?

Exemplary flashcards for American History critical thinking questions at the Universität Bielefeld on StudySmarter:

39. Describe the growth of the first party system in the United States. How did these parties come to

develop? How did they define themselves, both independently and in opposition to one another? Where did they find themselves in agreement?

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40. What led to the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts? What made them so controversial?

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41. What was the most significant impact of the War of 1812?

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42. In what ways did the events of this era pose challenges to the U.S. Constitution? What constitutional issues were raised, and how were they addressed?

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American History critical thinking questions

21. Was reconciliation between the American colonies and Great Britain possible in 1774? Why or why not?

Probably not because :

- Britain wanted to keep American colonies as part of their Empire

- Britain tried to "use" colonies as a source of money after making debts in French-Indian-War (taxation)

- Colonists in America felt treated unfairly (e.g. Stamp act, coercive acts)

- "No taxation without representation"

- Boston Tea Party as protest

American History critical thinking questions

Why did the colonists react so much more strongly to the Stamp Act than to the Sugar Act? How did the principles that the Stamp Act raised continue to provide points of contention between colonists and the British government?

- Stamp act had more influence on colonists' daily lives

- Stamp act affected both the powerful and the less prestigious people

- Stamp act added to the anger already present after the Sugar act

- Stamp act left smuggling as the only option

- Money gained by taxing colonists used for British military presence in the colonies

- Stamp act= direct tax

American History critical thinking questions

History is filled with unintended consequences. How do the British government’s attempts to control and regulate the colonies during this tumultuous era provide a case in point? How did the aims of the British measure up against the results of their actions?

- British acts fueled colonists' desire to free themselves of the British power

- Formation of Sons and Daughters of Liberty shows colonists' wish to become free and autonomous 

- Colonies started their own production of goods to become independent from British trade and goods

- British overestimated their power

American History critical thinking questions

33. In what ways does the United States Constitution manifest the principles of both republican and

democratic forms of government? In what ways does it deviate from those principles?

Both wanted to avoid anarchy, and to avoid giving people to much power, the legislature system was created. It is kind of democratic but still designed to give power to the few instead of the many, using representatives and being able to overthrow the vote of the mass. The principle is democratic, but the decisions stay in the upper class / elite.

American History critical thinking questions

35. Describe popular attitudes toward African Americans, women, and Indians in the wake of the

Revolution. In what ways did the established social and political order depend upon keeping members of these groups in their circumscribed roles? If those roles were to change, how would American society and politics have had to adjust?

Attitude: coverture -> all the power women had, including property and fortune went into the hands of her husband the second she married. But husbands weren´t allowed to sell their wives property without her agreement.

A.A. were owned, as well as their children. They still were property but it slowly changed. Manumissions were sometimes given to slaves, allowing them to be free and act on their own. Anyway they´ve still been seen as inferior to whites.

Indians were not included in the treaty of paris and they were deprived of their ancestral grounds. After the war the U.S. ignored all Indian claims. 

In some parts laws enforced these roles upon all three groups, e.g. the coverture. White men heavily profited from slavery, not having to pay for labor and creating their social status like that. Indians couldn´t be given rights because their grounds were used for white peoples benefits, such as farms.

The roles did change over time, slowly become more equal for all. Labor had to be payed, women and Indians gained rights etc.

American History critical thinking questions

36. How did the process of creating and ratifying the Constitution, and the language of the Constitution itself, confirm the positions of African Americans, women, and Indians in the new republic? How did these roles compare to the stated goals of the republic?

  • “All men are created equal” except, they weren´t treated like that. Two faced /double faced; enforcing the opposite of what its stating.
  • The three fifths compromise shows the dehumanization of slaves, Indians weren´t mentioned at all and women didn´t get relevant rights.

American History critical thinking questions

37. What were the circumstances that led to Shays’ Rebellion? What was the government’s response? Would this response have confirmed or negated the grievances of the participants in the uprising? Why?

An economic crisis (the high debt after the revolutionary war and extreme inflation) led to shay´s rebellion. The Farmers had to pay the most debt/taxes but also felt they suffered the most under the crisis and thus started the rebellion. The army of Shay walked into the supreme court to achieve change but a lot of them died/were hung. In the long run it led to another constitutional convention, it led the groundwork for actual government work, they realized they needed a strong centralized government. 

The economic crisis led to Shays’ Rebellion by residents of western Massachusetts, and to the decision to revise the Confederation government.

American History critical thinking questions

38. Describe Alexander Hamilton’s plans to address the nation’s financial woes. Which aspects proved most controversial, and why? What elements of the foundation Hamilton laid can still be found in the system today?

- The Report on Public Credit: Create a good image of the United States; federal government sells bonds - federal interest bearing notes – to the public; bonds have backing of the government + yield interest payments -> bonds would begin to yield interest payments in 1792.
-> most critique/ controversial: Creditors couldn’t be sure that they would get their money back later; fairness of the plan was questioned -> states with less dept questioned it (North Carolina); states with more dept supported it (South Carolina)
- The Report on a National Bank: establishing a national bank ; previous state bank notes changed into gold, so that a unified currency can be introduced
-> Critique: the Constitution did not permit the creation of a national bank by Jefferson
- The Report on Manufactures (raising revenue): Promote domestic manufactures; tax on American-made whiskey, tariffs on all foreign imports to stimulate the production of American-made goods
-> beginning of American capitalism

American History critical thinking questions

39. Describe the growth of the first party system in the United States. How did these parties come to

develop? How did they define themselves, both independently and in opposition to one another? Where did they find themselves in agreement?

- Federalists (John Adams) vs. Democratic Republicans (Thomas Jefferson); election 1796

- Federalists: supported a strong central government, a powerful central bank, government support of business, a loose interpretation of the constitution -> wealthy men (merchants), pro Hamilton’s plans

- Democratic Republicans: more power to individual states and state-chartered banks, strict reading of the Constitution -> ordinary people (artisans) -> against Hamilton’s plans

 - Revolution of 1800 -> first transfer of power from one party to another in American history -> presidency passed to Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson

-agreement: both parties still excluded women, slaves, and Indians 

American History critical thinking questions

40. What led to the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts? What made them so controversial?

- Quasi War -> undeclared war between US and France ; undermine Federalist power
-> increase national security
- Alien: deport new arrivals who appeared to be a threat to national security -> aimed at French immigrants
- Sedition: arrest and punish anyone who talked or wrote badly about the American government
-> wanted to lower the risk of a revolution
- controversial: acts were illegal and unconstitutional

American History critical thinking questions

41. What was the most significant impact of the War of 1812?

- Generated a feeling of pride among the entire nation; start of Industrialisation; discredited the Federalist party forever

American History critical thinking questions

42. In what ways did the events of this era pose challenges to the U.S. Constitution? What constitutional issues were raised, and how were they addressed?

- Indians forced people to acknowledge their existence -> uproars
 - aliens and seditions acts were against laws of freedom of speech and opinion 

- Louisiana Purchase 1803: how to deal with the new land?
-> Northerners: fear of more slave states
 -> unclear to people if the president is allowed to add that land

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