Survey Of Language And Linguistics at Universität Bamberg | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Survey of Language and Linguistics an der Universität Bamberg

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What questions can we ask?

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Freedom to ask any questions


o Is there a definite answer to the question?
o is there a general answer to the question or must it be specified to a field
o Is the subject definable and are we able to perceive them (ghosts)
o Can we negate the question? reverse-logic (Schrödinger's ghost) and show the
result
o Formulate questions affirmatively
o Find relationships between two subjects (causality and correlation)
(deduction/induction)

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Scope of Science:

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What claims do we wish to make and why


depends on our interest


§ culture, internal and external factors influence enthusiasm
§ the motivation for research and science -> ego, fundings
§ moral motivation -> altruism and charity
§ child-like curiosity, intrinsic motivator
§ societal importance

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culture dependence of science:

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• focus on science in the western world
o induces the approach researchers have towards science
• different approaches depending on the cultural surrounding
o Ying and Yang
o Eastern perspectives: human bodies are energy
o Western perspective: bodies are made of matter
§ repaired like a car

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Making true statements about reality


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• necker cube
• perception/cognition of reality depends on the point of view
o language must be accurate to describe precisely
• perception - interpretation - assumption
• no such thing as objective reality
o always interpreted and subjective
• reality is beyond the reach
• concept of constructed reality

• truth is not undeniable, only is agreed upon or is common sense
o is an agreed description/set of laws of the world around us

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Advancing the boundaries of knowledge

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definition of knowledge again depends on cognition/perception
o knowledge is a set of beliefs that are shared by numerous people
o beliefs imply ambiguity

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Falsifiability

Testing the claims

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• the claim has to be formulated so it can be proved wrong
o the sun rises every day
§ we do not know what happens in 2 million years
§ we do not know if the sun explodes tonight

• logical argumentation
• empirical testing
• exemplification/speculation
• experimental data
o experimental setting: prompt -> reaction; unnatural and removed from natural
behaviour
• naturalistic data
o tape the interaction and observe later, uninfluenced and unknowingly

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Linguistics as an empirical science

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linguistics deals with three types of data

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three types of data

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- Introspective data from within, inquiring oneself 

- decontextualised data, taken from contexts, dependance of language and its context

- natural/usage data, depending on the context, tedious work as it observes real-life interactions and might not lead to answers initially intended

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conceptions of language

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language as a phenomenon of the third kind


classifications: 

- natural objects

- human made objects

  - intentionally - artefacts

  - inadvertently - the third kind 



bee language - the first kind

Esperanto - second kind

natural language - third kind

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language as a cultural phenomenon

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final products, written data

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Wernicke's aphasia

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receptive aphasia

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What is science

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making statements and asking questions

falsifiability

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Q:

What questions can we ask?

A:

Freedom to ask any questions


o Is there a definite answer to the question?
o is there a general answer to the question or must it be specified to a field
o Is the subject definable and are we able to perceive them (ghosts)
o Can we negate the question? reverse-logic (Schrödinger's ghost) and show the
result
o Formulate questions affirmatively
o Find relationships between two subjects (causality and correlation)
(deduction/induction)

Q:

Scope of Science:

A:

What claims do we wish to make and why


depends on our interest


§ culture, internal and external factors influence enthusiasm
§ the motivation for research and science -> ego, fundings
§ moral motivation -> altruism and charity
§ child-like curiosity, intrinsic motivator
§ societal importance

Q:

culture dependence of science:

A:

• focus on science in the western world
o induces the approach researchers have towards science
• different approaches depending on the cultural surrounding
o Ying and Yang
o Eastern perspectives: human bodies are energy
o Western perspective: bodies are made of matter
§ repaired like a car

Q:

Making true statements about reality


A:

• necker cube
• perception/cognition of reality depends on the point of view
o language must be accurate to describe precisely
• perception - interpretation - assumption
• no such thing as objective reality
o always interpreted and subjective
• reality is beyond the reach
• concept of constructed reality

• truth is not undeniable, only is agreed upon or is common sense
o is an agreed description/set of laws of the world around us

Q:

Advancing the boundaries of knowledge

A:

definition of knowledge again depends on cognition/perception
o knowledge is a set of beliefs that are shared by numerous people
o beliefs imply ambiguity

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Q:

Falsifiability

Testing the claims

A:

• the claim has to be formulated so it can be proved wrong
o the sun rises every day
§ we do not know what happens in 2 million years
§ we do not know if the sun explodes tonight

• logical argumentation
• empirical testing
• exemplification/speculation
• experimental data
o experimental setting: prompt -> reaction; unnatural and removed from natural
behaviour
• naturalistic data
o tape the interaction and observe later, uninfluenced and unknowingly

Q:

Linguistics as an empirical science

A:

linguistics deals with three types of data

Q:

three types of data

A:

- Introspective data from within, inquiring oneself 

- decontextualised data, taken from contexts, dependance of language and its context

- natural/usage data, depending on the context, tedious work as it observes real-life interactions and might not lead to answers initially intended

Q:

conceptions of language

A:

language as a phenomenon of the third kind


classifications: 

- natural objects

- human made objects

  - intentionally - artefacts

  - inadvertently - the third kind 



bee language - the first kind

Esperanto - second kind

natural language - third kind

Q:

language as a cultural phenomenon

A:

final products, written data

Q:

Wernicke's aphasia

A:

receptive aphasia

Q:

What is science

A:

making statements and asking questions

falsifiability

Survey of Language and Linguistics

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