TOK at Universidad De Buenos Aires | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für TOK an der Universidad de Buenos Aires

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What shapes my perspectives as a knower?

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  • Cultural perspectives.
  • Political and religious perspectives.
  • Communities of interest.
  • Identity communities.
  • Knowledge communities.
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What is the Dunning-kruger effect?

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People who are highly competent tend to underestimate their abilities, but people who are incompetent tend to overestimate their abilities.

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The reliability of inductive reasoning depends on...

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...the quality and quantity of the observations.

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Our human thinking: What are the limits of knowledge?

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  • We often distort our conclusions because of the impact of emotion.
  • We do not always use reasoning (the conscious, rational processing of our brains) with care and with realistic expectations.
  • We answer the question we choose to ask, setting aside other potential knowledge.
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To achieve an open mind you need...

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  • Willingness to listen.
  • Self-awareness of your own perspectives.
  • Thoughtful and critical attention to what is being claimed and why.
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What is the anchoring bias?

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We tend to grab hold of an initial piece of information on a topic, take it as our anchor, and interpret further information in relation to this original point.

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Certeza

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La certeza es la conciencia de saber que conocemos la verdad. En este sentido, como certeza denominamos el conocimiento seguro y claro que se tiene de algo y que no deja lugar a dudas.

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What is a logical fallacy?

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A common error in thought characterized by faulty reasoning or some form of appeal that deflects thinking away from careful use of evidence.

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What can distortionate the evidence?

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  • Motivated reasoning.
  • Appeals to emotion.
  • Anectodtal evidence.
  • Cherry picking evidence.
  • Mistaking correlation for cause.
  • Lies and deliberate deception.
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Human biology: What are the limits of knowledge?

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  • Personal experience is limited by your lifetime.
  • Your abilities —skills— are likely to decline with age
  • We access reality with the biological mechanisms of our species, so catch only a part of what we assume is there.
    • We have used prior knowledge and technology to extend the range of our access.
  • We process reality with the biological mechanisms of our species, so interpret in a human way (cognitive biases).
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Which are the Geert Hofstede 'dimensions of culture'?

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  1. individualism vs collectivism
  2. power distance (degree of hierarchy when organizing society)
  3. masculinity vs femininity (style of decision making)
  4. uncertainty avoidance
  5. long-term orientation (how far you look ahead?)
  6. indulgence vs restraint (fun vs restrictions)
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What types of knowledge claims exist?

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  • Observational statements.
  • Value judgements.
  • Metaphysical statements.
  • Predictions.
  • Definitions.
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  • 3610 Karteikarten
  • 320 Studierende
  • 13 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen TOK Kurs an der Universidad de Buenos Aires - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What shapes my perspectives as a knower?

A:
  • Cultural perspectives.
  • Political and religious perspectives.
  • Communities of interest.
  • Identity communities.
  • Knowledge communities.
Q:

What is the Dunning-kruger effect?

A:

People who are highly competent tend to underestimate their abilities, but people who are incompetent tend to overestimate their abilities.

Q:

The reliability of inductive reasoning depends on...

A:

...the quality and quantity of the observations.

Q:

Our human thinking: What are the limits of knowledge?

A:
  • We often distort our conclusions because of the impact of emotion.
  • We do not always use reasoning (the conscious, rational processing of our brains) with care and with realistic expectations.
  • We answer the question we choose to ask, setting aside other potential knowledge.
Q:

To achieve an open mind you need...

A:
  • Willingness to listen.
  • Self-awareness of your own perspectives.
  • Thoughtful and critical attention to what is being claimed and why.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is the anchoring bias?

A:

We tend to grab hold of an initial piece of information on a topic, take it as our anchor, and interpret further information in relation to this original point.

Q:

Certeza

A:

La certeza es la conciencia de saber que conocemos la verdad. En este sentido, como certeza denominamos el conocimiento seguro y claro que se tiene de algo y que no deja lugar a dudas.

Q:

What is a logical fallacy?

A:

A common error in thought characterized by faulty reasoning or some form of appeal that deflects thinking away from careful use of evidence.

Q:

What can distortionate the evidence?

A:
  • Motivated reasoning.
  • Appeals to emotion.
  • Anectodtal evidence.
  • Cherry picking evidence.
  • Mistaking correlation for cause.
  • Lies and deliberate deception.
Q:

Human biology: What are the limits of knowledge?

A:
  • Personal experience is limited by your lifetime.
  • Your abilities —skills— are likely to decline with age
  • We access reality with the biological mechanisms of our species, so catch only a part of what we assume is there.
    • We have used prior knowledge and technology to extend the range of our access.
  • We process reality with the biological mechanisms of our species, so interpret in a human way (cognitive biases).
Q:

Which are the Geert Hofstede 'dimensions of culture'?

A:
  1. individualism vs collectivism
  2. power distance (degree of hierarchy when organizing society)
  3. masculinity vs femininity (style of decision making)
  4. uncertainty avoidance
  5. long-term orientation (how far you look ahead?)
  6. indulgence vs restraint (fun vs restrictions)
Q:

What types of knowledge claims exist?

A:
  • Observational statements.
  • Value judgements.
  • Metaphysical statements.
  • Predictions.
  • Definitions.
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