Psychologie at TU München

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Psychologie at the TU München

Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

At what age has according to Heckhausen (1966) an adequate assessment of probability of failure developed?

Select the correct answers:

  1. 4-6 years

  2. 2 years

  3. 3-4 years

  4. 5-9 years

  5. 10-15 years

Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Biologycal implications of psychology

Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Psychological peocesses based on biology 

Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Does Size Matter: Myth Busting

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Which of the following is not a constituting element of the empirical scientific method? A repeatability B objectivity C intersubjectivity D novelty E systematic collection and analysis of data

Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Basics of psychology as science

Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

What is psychology?

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Trait (disposition)

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State

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Basic concepts

Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Behaviour - Action

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How os psychology defined?

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Exemplary flashcards for Psychologie at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Psychologie

At what age has according to Heckhausen (1966) an adequate assessment of probability of failure developed?

  1. 4-6 years

  2. 2 years

  3. 3-4 years

  4. 5-9 years

  5. 10-15 years

Psychologie

Biologycal implications of psychology

• Psychological phenomena are based on neuronal structures and
neurophysiological processes.
• Primates differ only minimally in their genetic structure.
• Although the human brain is very flexible (high plasticity), there are
are areas specialised in certain functions.
• The transmission of information from one nerve cell to another is
carried out by neurotransmitters.
• Synaptical connections can be excitatory or inhibitory.
• The activity of neurotransmitters is influenced by neuromodulators.

Psychologie

Psychological peocesses based on biology 

• Every mental state has a neuronal correlate: a process in
the neuronal networks of the brain
• The brain consists of numerous neuronal moduls which are
specialised in specific functions.
• psychic functions are interindividually located in defined
areas of the brain.
• For the accomplishment of complex tasks several of these
areas interact (parallel processing), but also can defined
brain areas perform different tasks at the same time.

Psychologie

Does Size Matter: Myth Busting

• Human brain continues to grow until it reaches its peak size
in the third to fourth decade of life.
• An MRI study of 46 adults found that the average male had
a brain volume of 1,274 cubic centimeters (cm3) and that the
average female brain measured 1,131 cm3.
• Considerable variability in brain volume, ranging from 1,053
to 1,499 cm3 in men and between 975 and 1,398 cm3 in
women.
• As the density of brain matter is just a little bit above that of
water plus some salts, the average male brain weighs about
1,325 grams, close to the proverbial three pounds often
cited in U.S. texts.

Psychologie

Which of the following is not a constituting element of the empirical scientific method? A repeatability B objectivity C intersubjectivity D novelty E systematic collection and analysis of data

D novelty

D novelty

Psychologie

Basics of psychology as science

• A scientific theory has to be refutable.
• Science is distinguished from pseudo-science by its
empirical method.
• Characteristics of the empirical method is that it is
systematic, objective, intersubjective, and repeatable.
• If the experimental design lacks a control group it is
difficult if not impossible to attribute the results to the
effectiveness of the treatment (as in the Hawthorne
effect).

Psychologie

What is psychology?

• One of the fundamental issues is, whether the mind is separable
from the body (Dualism) or mind and body are inseparable
(Monism).
• Behaviorism assumed that it would only be possible to observe
behaviour (s-r mechanisms) but impossible to look into a person‘s
mind (black box).
• Modern psychology, in contrast, is especially interested in the
internal processes controlling behaviour and action (S-I-R Modell).
• In the early stages of modern psychology scientists formed
hypothetical constructs as, for example, motivation to describe the
postulated internal processes.
• Modern neuroscience provides physiological correlates for these
hypothetical constructs.
• Basic differentiations are:
– Inter-individual (between individuals) vs. Intra-individual (within an individual)
– Trait vs. state

Psychologie

Trait (disposition)






disposition of an individual
habitual personality characteristic
relatively stable personality feature/character trait
stable over time and situations
e.g.,
trait anxiety

Psychologie

State


state of an individual
● momentary

instable over time and situations
● e.g., state anxiety

Psychologie

Basic concepts

Inter-individual
differences between individuals
Intra-individual
variations within the same individual

Psychologie

Behaviour - Action

• Activities through which an organism interacts with its
environment
• An action is a behaviour subjectively associated with
meaning for the actor.

Psychologie

How os psychology defined?

The scientific study of the behaviour of individuals and
underlying mental processes.

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Anatomie 2016 AK

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Psychologische & Pädagogische AK 2020

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