Nanotechnology at TU München | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Nanotechnology an der TU München

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Nanoscale pattern transfer

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Wet and Dry Chemical Etching

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Nanofabrication by replication

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Nanoimprint Lithography

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2 types of Nanofabrication by charged beams

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Electron Beam Lithography

Focused Ion Beam

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What is the most prominent OL (optical lithography) technique ? 

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Mask based OL (Contact OL & Projection OL)

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3 types of Nanofabrication by scanning probes

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STM-based resist exposure

Local Oxidation lithography

Additive and Subtractive Nanofabrication

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Illumination with shorter Wavelengths (Photon sources?)

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Excimer Lasers (Deep UV (DUV), 193 nm): - high photon energy - short wavelength 


Issues with DUV (at 157 nm): - optical lens material (CaF …birefringence effects) - transparent mask pellicles - proper photoresists …due to high absorption in UV 


Extreme UV (EUV) (13 nm) and X-ray (<1 nm) : - no conventional refractive optics 

→ reflective optics (mirrors) 

→ proximity gap (1:1) lithography 

- mask needs absorber layer (Al, Cr,..) - prone to defects and image errors 

- extremely expensive 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How to enhance resolution w/o shorter wavelength? 

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Concept: Utilize medium with refractive index n > 1 (liquid)

-> Wet imaging can increase NA > 1


Issues: Maintain bubble free liquid between lens and wafer by fast moving stage

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4 types of Nanofabrication by photons

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1. Optical Litography

2. Near-field, Interferometric, Maskless Lithography

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Proximity effects: Interaction with substrate (resist or solid)

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Elastic and Inelastic scattering: forward and backscattered electrons cause broadening of exposure area


Secondary electrons generated by collisions with primary electrons travel 5-12nm and scatter -> broaded energy deposition in resist -> Limitation of resolution to ~10nm

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

3 factors influencing scattering (Proximity effects)

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1. Electron energy -> high energy less broadening

2. Density of substrate material -> low density less backscattering

3. Resist thickness -> thin preferred

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NFOL

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Near Field Optical Lithography: 


Light propagates as evanescent wave with exponential decay in resist. Mask is in direct contact or proximity gap with resist.

- Penetration of light only 40 nm of resist

 • Large field enhancement at edges of metal mask pattern → Local E-field intensity > |E0 | ^2 


... Surface plasmon polariton (SPP)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Resist materials for Ebeam Lithography: 2 paramterers for resoultion?

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sensitivity (µC/cm^2)

contrast

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Nanotechnology Kurs an der TU München - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Nanoscale pattern transfer

A:

Wet and Dry Chemical Etching

Q:

Nanofabrication by replication

A:

Nanoimprint Lithography

Q:

2 types of Nanofabrication by charged beams

A:

Electron Beam Lithography

Focused Ion Beam

Q:

What is the most prominent OL (optical lithography) technique ? 

A:

Mask based OL (Contact OL & Projection OL)

Q:

3 types of Nanofabrication by scanning probes

A:

STM-based resist exposure

Local Oxidation lithography

Additive and Subtractive Nanofabrication

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Illumination with shorter Wavelengths (Photon sources?)

A:

Excimer Lasers (Deep UV (DUV), 193 nm): - high photon energy - short wavelength 


Issues with DUV (at 157 nm): - optical lens material (CaF …birefringence effects) - transparent mask pellicles - proper photoresists …due to high absorption in UV 


Extreme UV (EUV) (13 nm) and X-ray (<1 nm) : - no conventional refractive optics 

→ reflective optics (mirrors) 

→ proximity gap (1:1) lithography 

- mask needs absorber layer (Al, Cr,..) - prone to defects and image errors 

- extremely expensive 

Q:

How to enhance resolution w/o shorter wavelength? 

A:

Concept: Utilize medium with refractive index n > 1 (liquid)

-> Wet imaging can increase NA > 1


Issues: Maintain bubble free liquid between lens and wafer by fast moving stage

Q:

4 types of Nanofabrication by photons

A:

1. Optical Litography

2. Near-field, Interferometric, Maskless Lithography

Q:

Proximity effects: Interaction with substrate (resist or solid)

A:

Elastic and Inelastic scattering: forward and backscattered electrons cause broadening of exposure area


Secondary electrons generated by collisions with primary electrons travel 5-12nm and scatter -> broaded energy deposition in resist -> Limitation of resolution to ~10nm

Q:

3 factors influencing scattering (Proximity effects)

A:

1. Electron energy -> high energy less broadening

2. Density of substrate material -> low density less backscattering

3. Resist thickness -> thin preferred

Q:

NFOL

A:

Near Field Optical Lithography: 


Light propagates as evanescent wave with exponential decay in resist. Mask is in direct contact or proximity gap with resist.

- Penetration of light only 40 nm of resist

 • Large field enhancement at edges of metal mask pattern → Local E-field intensity > |E0 | ^2 


... Surface plasmon polariton (SPP)

Q:

Resist materials for Ebeam Lithography: 2 paramterers for resoultion?

A:

sensitivity (µC/cm^2)

contrast

Nanotechnology

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