Introduction to Biological Imaging at TU München

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How does FE help localizing each spin/nuclei

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Biological Imaging at the TU München on StudySmarter:

How in PE can we localize each point and get an image out of it

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How does PE works

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How is the phase in PE determined

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How to determines the slice thickness (resolution)? 

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How to change planes (orient the slice) in SS

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How to select a different slice

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How does SS work?

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Chemical shift definition

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T2* relaxation reasons?

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What is T2 relaxation due to?

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Steps of k-space filling

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Biological Imaging at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How does FE help localizing each spin/nuclei

activate a frequency encoding gradient along dimension of the image after turning off RF → Reverse Fourier Transform: takes the compound of sinus functions and gives the component → we have as a result different sinus functions with different amplitudes and different frequencies, the frequencies are dependant on the gradient magnetic field → frequency is location

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How in PE can we localize each point and get an image out of it

  • change the strength of the phase encoding Gradient to get another row of points/measurements 
    • sampling signals of spins with phase shifts different due to different strength of gradient results in signals from spins from different locations 
    • in one row of the same frequency encoding, when we give different phase encoding gradients, we receive different signals but we know they come from the same row → depending on where the spin is in the row (left or right), it has a more or less change → compare the signals from one row
    • repeat 256 times the Gphi and sample 256 to get an image with 256 pixels in a dimension

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How does PE works

a linear gradient magnetic field Gɸ is given in an impulse (in the other dimension than frequency encoding gradient). It results in spins rotating at different speeds along the gradient. After the impulse, the spins continue rotating at the same speed but in different phases since they are only subject to B0 by that time

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How is the phase in PE determined

The phase is determined by the duration and magnitude of the phase encoding gradient pulse

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How to determines the slice thickness (resolution)? 

  • RF is a range of frequencies, greater range = greater width of tissue/ of the slice → super tune RF 
  • change the strength/slope of the gradient magnetic field by dumping more current → makes the thickness narrower since the range of RF is faster reached

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How to change planes (orient the slice) in SS

by activating other gradient fields in other directions → for example to have a slice in the coronal direction, turn on the y gradient and for sagital turn on the x gradient. Obliques by turning a combination two gradients in two orientations.

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How to select a different slice

by predicting what the precession frequency along the known gradient magnetic field → apply another RF to excite the spins in another location.

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How does SS work?

Select the slice by manipulating the frequencies of the tissues so that the match and resonance between RF and precession frequency of the tissue only occurs within a specific plane in the isocenter of the scanner.

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Chemical shift definition

pique visible in the frequency signal, higher with a higher number of multiplets

Introduction to Biological Imaging

T2* relaxation reasons?

  • additional dephasing of the magnetization introduced by external field inhomogeneities. This reduction is an initial value of M⟂ can sometimes be characterized by a separate decay time T’2. The total relaxation rate, defined as R*2, is the sum of the internal and external relaxation rates
  • T2* is due to imperfect magnets and field distortions due to the tissue in the field

Introduction to Biological Imaging

What is T2 relaxation due to?

  • Vanishing of Mxy
  • local alterations of the magnetic field due to individual magnetic moments. 
  • Vectors/spins fan out on xy due to the effect of neighbor spins

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Steps of k-space filling

  • record signals as series of measurements of signal amplitude acquired over time
  • iterate with only one change = the phase encoding gradient (k-space) 
  • FT → get frequency vs amplitude for each of the rows 
  • each of the rows in the new recording is from the iteration, at a different point in time and each of the entries in the row is a measure of signal intensity 
  • compare the measurements taken in a single row using FT 
  • sperate the amplitudes from one row and sort them out in their correct spatial locations using FT 
  • get an image with frequency change in one dimension and phase change in the other dimension

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