Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at TU München

Flashcards and summaries for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München

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Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what does rationality at any given time depend on?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what is rationality and problems with it?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

What is the difference between assertions and queries in First-Order Logic

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what are problems of reduction to propositional inference?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

  1. what is a percept sequence?
  2. what is an agent function?    
  3. depending on length of percept sequence agent can make smarter choices. Why?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

how is forward and what are the properties?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

how is backward chaining done and what are the properties?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

how to do resolution in FOL, is it complete?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what is variable ordering and variable relevance?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Is Backward Chaining...

Select the correct answers:

  1. Depth-First

  2. Breadth-First

  3. None of the above

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what does probability space consist of?

Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

definition of omniscient agent, learning and autonomy?

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Exemplary flashcards for Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

what does rationality at any given time depend on?
  • performance measure
  • agents prior knowledge of environment
  • actions that agent can perform
  • agents percept sequence up to now

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

what is rationality and problems with it?
  • system is rational if it does the right thing, has an ideal performance
  • no clear performance measure for all tasks and environments -> find acceptable measure

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

What is the difference between assertions and queries in First-Order Logic

Sentences added to knowledge base using TELL = Assertions

Ask questions of knowledge base = queries

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

what are problems of reduction to propositional inference?

  • lots of irrelevant sentences
  • p k-ary predicates and n constants lead to p*n^k instantations
  • function symbols even worse

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

  1. what is a percept sequence?
  2. what is an agent function?    
  3. depending on length of percept sequence agent can make smarter choices. Why?
  1. complete history of its perception
  2. maps any given percept sequence to an action
  3. more information of environment -> smarter choices

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

how is forward and what are the properties?

  • forward chaining: start from known facts, triggers all rules whose premises are satisfied and adds their conclusions to known facts, repeats until query is answered or no new facts added, use Standardize-Apart(r) of sentence r to rename all variables with variables which have not been used before
  • sound and complete for FOL, may not terminate if function symbols are involved, entailment with definite clauses is semidecidable

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

how is backward chaining done and what are the properties?

  • starting from goal, find rules to find known facts that support the proof, repeats until the query is answered, workhouse for logical programming
  • depth-first recursive proof search (space linear in size of proof), incomplete due to infinite loops (need current goal check), inefficient due to repeated subgoals (caching of previous results)

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

how to do resolution in FOL, is it complete?

  • enables complete proof procedure
  • convert to CNF
  • to show KB entails alpha, we need to show KB AND NOTalpha is unsatisfiable
  • completeness: refutation-complete

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

what is variable ordering and variable relevance?

methods to reduce computation

variable ordering: sort variables 

variable relevance: sort out irreleveant variables, remove variables which are not a query variable or an evidence variable

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

Is Backward Chaining...

  1. Depth-First

  2. Breadth-First

  3. None of the above

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

what does probability space consist of?

  • sample space: set of possible outcomes
  • event space: contains all possible combinations of outcomes
  • function P assigning a probability to each event

Gundlagen der Künstlichen Intelligenz

definition of omniscient agent, learning and autonomy?
  • omniscient agent: knows actual outcome of its actions (impossible), rational agent maximizes expected performance
  • learnig: rational agents are able to learn from perception, improve their knowledge
  • autonomy: rational agent considered autonomous if it is not dependent on prior knowledge and ueses newly learned abilities

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