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Lernmaterialien für Food microbiology an der TU München

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Highlight some of the future concepts of microbiome and diet therapies

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- ultimate goal: personalized nutrition
- clinical tests; DNA/RNA sequencing; physiological monitoring and in-depth nutritional read-outs
- intra-individual variation: There is a strong response to dietary change, but
- Depending on what microbes already present impacts this response
- Response is rapid, but transient after selected diet is removed

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Provide examples of diary-associated (milk and cheese) food spoilage

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Milk
- Milk is an extremely nutritious food for both humans and microbes
- Aqueous solution (87% water) with a pH of about 7.0 and contains proteins, carbohydrates
(including lactose), and fats
- Contamination can arise from different places
- milking animals
- surrounding air of the farm and storage
- quality of water used
- quality of milk handling equipment and storage tanks used
- biofilms formation on diary plant pipes
- When bacteria contaminate milk they secrete enzymes that digest fats into fatty acids
- Milk becomes ‘spoiled’; rancid and unfit to drink
- Common type of milk spoilage often takes place in the refrigerator
- Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, or Paenibacillus are introduced during milking and
processing
- Not all microbes killed by pasteurization → multiple slowly → ferment lactose into
lactic/acetic acids
- Enough acid can change structure of the protein and cause it to curdle (coagulate)
- Milk also can be contaminated by Gram-negative bacteria
- Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes
- Produce acid and gas from lactose → acid curdles the protein
- Gas forces coagulated casein (curds) apart → sometimes explode out of milk container
- “stormy fermentation
2. Cheese
- Cheese is a fermented milk product that is made by coagulating the casein present in milk by using
the enzyme rennet
- Ripening in cheese is achieved due to the proteolytic and lipolytic activities of various microorganisms
- Low moisture content of hard and semi-hard ripened cheeses makes them susceptible to fungi
compared to bacteria
- Soft and fresh cheeses are spoiled easily due to their higher pH, moisture content, and lower
salinity
- Bacterial cheese spoilage is caused by Clostridium spp.,
- especially C. pasteurianum, C. butyricum, C. sporogenes, and C. tyrobutyricum)
- also Bacillus polymyxa, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas spp., and Achromobacter

- Yeasts are common cheese spoilage organisms e.g. Candida spp., Debaryomyces hansenii,
Geotrichum candidum, and Pichia spp.
- Mold spoilage in cheese is caused mainly by Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp.
- Major pathogenic bacteria found in cheese are Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp.,
and E. coli

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name foods commonly associated with foodborne illness

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- 12% Chicken
- 10% Pork
- 9% Beef and Fruits
- 8% Turkey and Vegetable Row Crops
- 7% Eggs, Seeded Vegetables
- 5% Dairy, Mollusks

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

List important LAB and the major compounds produced after fermentation

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- LAB is generally includes Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and
Enterococcus
- All these micro-organisms are Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, rod- and coccus-
shaped organisms and are capable to ferment carbohydrates
- Main product obtained after fermentation is lactic acid
- Major compounds produced in LAB fermentation are:
- Organic acids
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Bacteriocins

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

List some important viral agents associated with foodborne illness with further information
provided for Norovirus

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

-several groups of viruses
- Norovirus
- Rotavirus
- Adenovirus
- Norovirus
- group of viruses known for causing the ‘winter vomiting bug’
- Outbreaks every year usually around January
- Accounts for ~20% gastroenteritis globally
- The norovirus is responsible for gastroenteritis or ‘stomach flu’
- BUT, if it is caused by contaminated food then it can also be considered a type of food
poisoning
- Highly infectious
- widely spread throughout environment and difficult to eradicate through normal sanitary
and food safety measures
- short lived infection, although can persist in high risk individuals
- symptoms: fever, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Briefly describe the principles and processes of food
spoilage

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- definition
- the damage from spoilage and contaminated food affects the food industry
- economic loss, damage to reputation and punishment according to local law
- occurs either because of microbial growth in a food or because of the action of some microbial
enzymes present in food
- the spoilage of food by microbial activity involves many and complex mechanisms wherein the
acceptance of sensory attributes decay and consumers reject the food
- the presence of visible growth as slime and colonies changes in texture due to degradation of
protein/carbohydrates/lipids and the perception of off-odors and off-flavors may indicate spoilage by
mo
- process
1. microbial attack
2. food degradation
3. changes appear as a result of food spoilage
4. enzymatic reaction of decomposition

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Provide a brief background of the factors impacting food spoilage; including intrinsic vs. extrinsic
factors

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- the ability of microorganisms to grow or multiply in such food depends on the food environment
- factors determine the microbial growth in food and the specific metabolic pathways they use to
generate energy and metabolic by-products
- definition
- intrinsic: physical and chemical properties of the food
- pH, water activity, oxidation-reduction potential, nutrient content
- extrinsic: storage conditions
- temperature of storage, relative humidity, gases in the environment

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Briefly describe what mold are and name 4 important types in food microbiology

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- definition
- mold are multicellular microorganisms (fungi) with mycelial (filamentous) morphology
(hyphae)
- variety of colors and are generally recognized by their mildewy or fuzzy, cotton-like
appearance
- key molds
- Aspergillus
- Penicillium
- Rhizopus
- Bothrytis

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name up to 10 bacteria of concern in food microbiology

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Bacillus cereus
- Vibrio
- Shigella
- Clostridium botulinum
- Clostridium perfringens
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Bacillus
- Lactic Acid
- Bacteria
- Lactococcus

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name the main microorganisms in food microbiology

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- bacteria
- moulds (fungi)
- yeasts (fungi)
- viruses
- protozoa
- algae

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Provide basic details on the role of bacteria in food spoilage

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- most commonly spoiled by bacteria as it can grow in a wide variety of conditions
- bacteria are used for beneficial fermentations of pickled, milk products etc.
- bacteria do not grow at a water activity level below 0,91 and require neutral pH (6.5-7) to cause
food spoilage
- some bacteria are capable of spore formation so they are highly heat resistant and some are
capable of producing heat-resistant toxins

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Provide basic details on the role of fungi in food spoilage

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- discovery of mycotoxin production in foods has highlighted the importance of molds in food quality
- only within the last 10-15 years that major progresses have been made towards the prevention of
spoilage caused by molds
- an enormous range of different foods can be spoiled by yeasts and molds
- fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, beans and pulses, cereals…
- spoilage can be highly visible in the form of surface fungal mycelium or obvious degradation of the
product or may be les evident and only detectable as an “off” flavor or fermentation and gas
production
- 5-10% of all losses in global food production

Lösung ausblenden
  • 522574 Karteikarten
  • 11315 Studierende
  • 499 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Food microbiology Kurs an der TU München - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Highlight some of the future concepts of microbiome and diet therapies

A:

- ultimate goal: personalized nutrition
- clinical tests; DNA/RNA sequencing; physiological monitoring and in-depth nutritional read-outs
- intra-individual variation: There is a strong response to dietary change, but
- Depending on what microbes already present impacts this response
- Response is rapid, but transient after selected diet is removed

Q:

Provide examples of diary-associated (milk and cheese) food spoilage

A:

1. Milk
- Milk is an extremely nutritious food for both humans and microbes
- Aqueous solution (87% water) with a pH of about 7.0 and contains proteins, carbohydrates
(including lactose), and fats
- Contamination can arise from different places
- milking animals
- surrounding air of the farm and storage
- quality of water used
- quality of milk handling equipment and storage tanks used
- biofilms formation on diary plant pipes
- When bacteria contaminate milk they secrete enzymes that digest fats into fatty acids
- Milk becomes ‘spoiled’; rancid and unfit to drink
- Common type of milk spoilage often takes place in the refrigerator
- Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, or Paenibacillus are introduced during milking and
processing
- Not all microbes killed by pasteurization → multiple slowly → ferment lactose into
lactic/acetic acids
- Enough acid can change structure of the protein and cause it to curdle (coagulate)
- Milk also can be contaminated by Gram-negative bacteria
- Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes
- Produce acid and gas from lactose → acid curdles the protein
- Gas forces coagulated casein (curds) apart → sometimes explode out of milk container
- “stormy fermentation
2. Cheese
- Cheese is a fermented milk product that is made by coagulating the casein present in milk by using
the enzyme rennet
- Ripening in cheese is achieved due to the proteolytic and lipolytic activities of various microorganisms
- Low moisture content of hard and semi-hard ripened cheeses makes them susceptible to fungi
compared to bacteria
- Soft and fresh cheeses are spoiled easily due to their higher pH, moisture content, and lower
salinity
- Bacterial cheese spoilage is caused by Clostridium spp.,
- especially C. pasteurianum, C. butyricum, C. sporogenes, and C. tyrobutyricum)
- also Bacillus polymyxa, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas spp., and Achromobacter

- Yeasts are common cheese spoilage organisms e.g. Candida spp., Debaryomyces hansenii,
Geotrichum candidum, and Pichia spp.
- Mold spoilage in cheese is caused mainly by Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp.
- Major pathogenic bacteria found in cheese are Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp.,
and E. coli

Q:

Name foods commonly associated with foodborne illness

A:

- 12% Chicken
- 10% Pork
- 9% Beef and Fruits
- 8% Turkey and Vegetable Row Crops
- 7% Eggs, Seeded Vegetables
- 5% Dairy, Mollusks

Q:

List important LAB and the major compounds produced after fermentation

A:

- LAB is generally includes Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and
Enterococcus
- All these micro-organisms are Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, rod- and coccus-
shaped organisms and are capable to ferment carbohydrates
- Main product obtained after fermentation is lactic acid
- Major compounds produced in LAB fermentation are:
- Organic acids
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Bacteriocins

Q:

List some important viral agents associated with foodborne illness with further information
provided for Norovirus

A:

-several groups of viruses
- Norovirus
- Rotavirus
- Adenovirus
- Norovirus
- group of viruses known for causing the ‘winter vomiting bug’
- Outbreaks every year usually around January
- Accounts for ~20% gastroenteritis globally
- The norovirus is responsible for gastroenteritis or ‘stomach flu’
- BUT, if it is caused by contaminated food then it can also be considered a type of food
poisoning
- Highly infectious
- widely spread throughout environment and difficult to eradicate through normal sanitary
and food safety measures
- short lived infection, although can persist in high risk individuals
- symptoms: fever, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Briefly describe the principles and processes of food
spoilage

A:

- definition
- the damage from spoilage and contaminated food affects the food industry
- economic loss, damage to reputation and punishment according to local law
- occurs either because of microbial growth in a food or because of the action of some microbial
enzymes present in food
- the spoilage of food by microbial activity involves many and complex mechanisms wherein the
acceptance of sensory attributes decay and consumers reject the food
- the presence of visible growth as slime and colonies changes in texture due to degradation of
protein/carbohydrates/lipids and the perception of off-odors and off-flavors may indicate spoilage by
mo
- process
1. microbial attack
2. food degradation
3. changes appear as a result of food spoilage
4. enzymatic reaction of decomposition

Q:

Provide a brief background of the factors impacting food spoilage; including intrinsic vs. extrinsic
factors

A:

- the ability of microorganisms to grow or multiply in such food depends on the food environment
- factors determine the microbial growth in food and the specific metabolic pathways they use to
generate energy and metabolic by-products
- definition
- intrinsic: physical and chemical properties of the food
- pH, water activity, oxidation-reduction potential, nutrient content
- extrinsic: storage conditions
- temperature of storage, relative humidity, gases in the environment

Q:

Briefly describe what mold are and name 4 important types in food microbiology

A:

- definition
- mold are multicellular microorganisms (fungi) with mycelial (filamentous) morphology
(hyphae)
- variety of colors and are generally recognized by their mildewy or fuzzy, cotton-like
appearance
- key molds
- Aspergillus
- Penicillium
- Rhizopus
- Bothrytis

Q:

Name up to 10 bacteria of concern in food microbiology

A:

- Bacillus cereus
- Vibrio
- Shigella
- Clostridium botulinum
- Clostridium perfringens
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Bacillus
- Lactic Acid
- Bacteria
- Lactococcus

Q:

Name the main microorganisms in food microbiology

A:

- bacteria
- moulds (fungi)
- yeasts (fungi)
- viruses
- protozoa
- algae

Q:

Provide basic details on the role of bacteria in food spoilage

A:

- most commonly spoiled by bacteria as it can grow in a wide variety of conditions
- bacteria are used for beneficial fermentations of pickled, milk products etc.
- bacteria do not grow at a water activity level below 0,91 and require neutral pH (6.5-7) to cause
food spoilage
- some bacteria are capable of spore formation so they are highly heat resistant and some are
capable of producing heat-resistant toxins

Q:

Provide basic details on the role of fungi in food spoilage

A:

- discovery of mycotoxin production in foods has highlighted the importance of molds in food quality
- only within the last 10-15 years that major progresses have been made towards the prevention of
spoilage caused by molds
- an enormous range of different foods can be spoiled by yeasts and molds
- fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, beans and pulses, cereals…
- spoilage can be highly visible in the form of surface fungal mycelium or obvious degradation of the
product or may be les evident and only detectable as an “off” flavor or fermentation and gas
production
- 5-10% of all losses in global food production

Food microbiology

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