Augmented Reality at TU München

Flashcards and summaries for Augmented Reality at the TU München

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Augmented Reality at the TU München

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

challenges for augmented reality

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what are the requirements for AR systems

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

name some applications for AR        

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

different AR approaches    

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

technology-oriented definition of AR

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

defintion of AR

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

name some typical assumptions for computer vision

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Edge- (Difference)- Based Approaches


Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

concept of homogeneous coordinates?

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what are the calibration options for

oprical see-through displays?

Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what are the calibration options for

Video see-through displays?


Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

what are the methods to calibrate a stereo HMD?

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Exemplary flashcards for Augmented Reality at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Augmented Reality

challenges for augmented reality

• Mobile user
– Local (inside-out) tracker (here: camera in user‘s hand or on HMD)
– Fast, erratic motions (esp. rotations)
• Unprepared environment:
– No markers
– No 3D scene description (3D model)
– No external (outside-in) observing system
• Even worse:
– Moving (changing) objects
– Changing illumination
– Very large area

Augmented Reality

what are the requirements for AR systems

• Efficiency
• Flexibility
• Quality of Service in Networks
• Load Balancing
• Adaptive System Behavior
• System Security (Datenschutz)
• User Safety, Acceptance

Augmented Reality

name some applications for AR        

Mechanical Engineering

Education

Tourism

HCI in Cars (human computer interaction)

Medicine

Augmented Reality

different AR approaches    

head-based
hand-based
desktop-based
on real surfaces
multi-touch
hybrid and tangible

Augmented Reality

technology-oriented definition of AR

Provides users with computer information within their real
environment
– Three-dimensional
– Immersive
– Interactive
– In real-time
– Mobile

Augmented Reality

defintion of AR

• Real + virtual
• Interactive in real-time
• Registered in 3 Dimensions

Augmented Reality

name some typical assumptions for computer vision

The scene is „suitably“ illuminated

– known positions of light sources

– not too bright, not too dark

The objects are in „suitable“ positions

– reasonably large to be recognizable

The objects have appearance properties (3D) that are projected into easily
detectable image features (2D)

– specific shape

Augmented Reality

Edge- (Difference)- Based Approaches


• Edge detection works by finding large differences
between neighboring pixels → „edgels“
(first or second derivative of image function)
• Edge detectors can be described by masks; convolution
is a general scheme to apply masks to every pixel
– Masks for simple edge detectors

• Edgels alone are not enough; to determine higher level
image structures (edges), edgels need to be smoothed
and combined → robust edge detection
– Integration (smoothing) vs. differentiation (sharpening)
• Higher level shape descriptors (e.g. lines) can be fitted
to edges

Augmented Reality

concept of homogeneous coordinates?

Homogeneous coordinates have an extra dimension called W, which scales the X, Y, and Z dimensions. Matrices for translation and perspective projection transformations can only be applied to homogeneous coordinates, which is why they are so common in 3D computer graphics. The X, Y, and Z values are said to be “correct” when W=1. Any homogeneous coordinate can be converted to have W=1 by dividing all four dimensions by the W value, except if W=0. When W=0, the coordinate represents a point at infinity (a vector with infinite length), and this is often used to denote the direction of directional lights.

Augmented Reality

what are the calibration options for

oprical see-through displays?

– Single Point Active Alignment Method (SPAAM)
• Collect >15 points by simple user interaction
• Easy to implement
– Display Relative Calibration (DRC)
• Offline-phase requires complicated laboratory setup
• More advanced model
• In reality, does not produce better results
– INDICA
• Detect eye position automatically, using an eye-tracking camera
• No user interaction required → no user-dependent error
• Continuous re-calibration possible

Augmented Reality

what are the calibration options for

Video see-through displays?


– Inside-Out tracking using see-through camera: Camera calibration
– Outside-In tracking: Hand-eye calibration

Augmented Reality

what are the methods to calibrate a stereo HMD?

calibrate the two displays individually

use Stereo-SPAAM

– Show crosshair in both displays simultaneously
→ crosshair also has a 3D position
– User has to align crosshair with reference point in 3D
→ creates valid correspondences for both displays
– Then use normal matrix estimation to estimate PL and PR
separately
– Drawback: correct alignment in 3D is difficult

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