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Lernmaterialien für Collaborative Intelligence an der TU Kaiserslautern

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What are the Search Engine Components?     

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  • Crawler
  • Information Retrievals
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Observations with trending topics

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● Significant interest in incidents, such as sports events, product releases, (death of) celebrities, holidays, etc.

● Time when topics are found to be trending matches real-world events in a timely manner

● Some trending topics such as „champions league" occur multiple times within our one year observation period

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Name and explain the solution for the problems of the classic web.

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solution: The Semantic Web Idea



  •  Provide information in machine interpretable form

  • Make (semantic) links between (data) documents usable

  • Allow reasoning

  • Facilitate useful (!) complex queries


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe three of the HTTP-Request Methods


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  •  HTTP GET

    •  The GET method means retrieve whatever information is identified by the Request-URI.


  •  HTTP POST

    • The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the
      entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.


  • HTTP PUT 

    • The PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored under the
      supplied Request-URI. 


  • HTTP DELETE

    • The DELETE method requests that the origin server delete the resource identified by the Request-URI.


  • HTTP HEAD

    • The head method is same like GET but without response body (useful for meta information)


  • HTTP TRACE

    • The TRACE method echoes the request with optional changes or additions by intermediate servers.


  • HTTP OPTIONS

    • The OPTIONS method returns all possible HTTP request methods the the server supports. 


  • HTTP CONNECT

    • The CONNECT method is used for tunnels.


  • HTTP PATCH

    • The PATCH method is used for partially changing the a resource

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Graph isomorphism

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Two RDF graphs G and G’ are isomorphic if there is a bijection m : G → G′ between the sets of the nodes of the two graphs, such that:

  • URIs:∀uεU(G): m(u) = u
  • Literals: ∀l ε L(G); m(l) = l
  • BNodes: ∀b, b1 =/ b2 ε B(G), b′ ε B(G′) : m(b) = b′, m(b1) =/ m(b2)
  • Triplets: (s, p, o) ε G ⇔ (m(s), m(p), m(o)) ε G′


Simplified:

○ All triples from G have equivalent ones in G’ and the other way around

○ An RDF Graph can have different serializations (eg. namespaces, order of triplets, etc), but different serialization does not necessarily mean different graphs.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

User-centered design process

Expert Reviews

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Expert reviews may use the following review methods:

  • Heuristic evaluation
    Experts analyze an interface if it is conformant with a set of common design heuristics
  • Guidelines review
    Interface is inspected for consistency with any given formal guidelines that may be predetermined e.g. by an organizations corporate design style guide
  • Cognitive walkthroughs
    Based on the definition of “ideal paths” (predetermined correct sequences of task actions needed to achieve a specific goal), experts simulate users walking through the interface to carry out these tasks.


There are some important conditions for evaluation user behavior while testing:

  • Avoid to influence
    • It is very important for the observers not to intervene or instruct the users while they perform the defined tasks
  • Try to understand
    • Users should be encouraged to articulate their thoughts while working with the system and thereby explain their expectations and strategies
  • Preserve to memorize
    • Video recorders should be used to capture the user’s actions and the contents of the screens, while microphones should capture those “thinking-aloud” comments

 

 ➢ Consolidated results of such usability-tests, which should also include subjective satisfaction and d ebriefing questions, can subsequently be used as input for the next iterative design phase

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URI

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A uniform resource identifier (URI) is a compact sequence of characters

(ASCII) that identifies an abstract or physical resource

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Name and explain the reading modes.

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  • Move Forward: Distinguished via distances beween fixation points along the text orientation (number of characters) -> Read forward movement, Skim forward movements, Long skim jumps movements
  • Move Backwards: Distinguished via distances between fixation points towards the text orientation (number of characters) -> Short regressions, Long regressions, Reset jumps
  • Move elsewhere: all other movements -> unrelated moves
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What does the operator " NOT -  " do?

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Forces the absence of this word in the document.

e.g. "drama -Goethe"
-> finds only documents in which the term Goethe is not included but which obtain the term drama.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How are the Query terms entered in the Interface ?    (Score Measuring) 

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The Query terms entered in the interface are compared with the document corpus using a "query" - independent score Measuring

  • the relevance  of the documents referring to the query terms
  • the importance od the documents considering the links to a given page
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What does a Crawler do?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A Crawler searches the data repositories(or the web) for new or changes Documents
->  ideally not only including textual documents like HTML-based web pages but also other content formats

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Metadata are a common means for describing the contents of documents. What are their characteristics?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Metadata is structured data allowing to locate indormation ressources more easily
  • Metadata is meant to describe content comprehensively
  • Metadata is often referred to as an index (the terms describing them are called indices or index terms) 
  • Metadata is divided into extrinsic, intrinsic and qualitative types
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  • 45815 Karteikarten
  • 1067 Studierende
  • 78 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Collaborative Intelligence Kurs an der TU Kaiserslautern - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What are the Search Engine Components?     

A:
  • Crawler
  • Information Retrievals
Q:

Observations with trending topics

A:

● Significant interest in incidents, such as sports events, product releases, (death of) celebrities, holidays, etc.

● Time when topics are found to be trending matches real-world events in a timely manner

● Some trending topics such as „champions league" occur multiple times within our one year observation period

Q:

Name and explain the solution for the problems of the classic web.

A:

solution: The Semantic Web Idea



  •  Provide information in machine interpretable form

  • Make (semantic) links between (data) documents usable

  • Allow reasoning

  • Facilitate useful (!) complex queries


Q:

Describe three of the HTTP-Request Methods


A:
  •  HTTP GET

    •  The GET method means retrieve whatever information is identified by the Request-URI.


  •  HTTP POST

    • The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the
      entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.


  • HTTP PUT 

    • The PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored under the
      supplied Request-URI. 


  • HTTP DELETE

    • The DELETE method requests that the origin server delete the resource identified by the Request-URI.


  • HTTP HEAD

    • The head method is same like GET but without response body (useful for meta information)


  • HTTP TRACE

    • The TRACE method echoes the request with optional changes or additions by intermediate servers.


  • HTTP OPTIONS

    • The OPTIONS method returns all possible HTTP request methods the the server supports. 


  • HTTP CONNECT

    • The CONNECT method is used for tunnels.


  • HTTP PATCH

    • The PATCH method is used for partially changing the a resource

Q:

Graph isomorphism

A:

Two RDF graphs G and G’ are isomorphic if there is a bijection m : G → G′ between the sets of the nodes of the two graphs, such that:

  • URIs:∀uεU(G): m(u) = u
  • Literals: ∀l ε L(G); m(l) = l
  • BNodes: ∀b, b1 =/ b2 ε B(G), b′ ε B(G′) : m(b) = b′, m(b1) =/ m(b2)
  • Triplets: (s, p, o) ε G ⇔ (m(s), m(p), m(o)) ε G′


Simplified:

○ All triples from G have equivalent ones in G’ and the other way around

○ An RDF Graph can have different serializations (eg. namespaces, order of triplets, etc), but different serialization does not necessarily mean different graphs.


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

User-centered design process

Expert Reviews

A:

Expert reviews may use the following review methods:

  • Heuristic evaluation
    Experts analyze an interface if it is conformant with a set of common design heuristics
  • Guidelines review
    Interface is inspected for consistency with any given formal guidelines that may be predetermined e.g. by an organizations corporate design style guide
  • Cognitive walkthroughs
    Based on the definition of “ideal paths” (predetermined correct sequences of task actions needed to achieve a specific goal), experts simulate users walking through the interface to carry out these tasks.


There are some important conditions for evaluation user behavior while testing:

  • Avoid to influence
    • It is very important for the observers not to intervene or instruct the users while they perform the defined tasks
  • Try to understand
    • Users should be encouraged to articulate their thoughts while working with the system and thereby explain their expectations and strategies
  • Preserve to memorize
    • Video recorders should be used to capture the user’s actions and the contents of the screens, while microphones should capture those “thinking-aloud” comments

 

 ➢ Consolidated results of such usability-tests, which should also include subjective satisfaction and d ebriefing questions, can subsequently be used as input for the next iterative design phase

Q:

URI

A:

A uniform resource identifier (URI) is a compact sequence of characters

(ASCII) that identifies an abstract or physical resource

Q:

Name and explain the reading modes.

A:
  • Move Forward: Distinguished via distances beween fixation points along the text orientation (number of characters) -> Read forward movement, Skim forward movements, Long skim jumps movements
  • Move Backwards: Distinguished via distances between fixation points towards the text orientation (number of characters) -> Short regressions, Long regressions, Reset jumps
  • Move elsewhere: all other movements -> unrelated moves
Q:

What does the operator " NOT -  " do?

A:

Forces the absence of this word in the document.

e.g. "drama -Goethe"
-> finds only documents in which the term Goethe is not included but which obtain the term drama.

Q:

How are the Query terms entered in the Interface ?    (Score Measuring) 

A:

The Query terms entered in the interface are compared with the document corpus using a "query" - independent score Measuring

  • the relevance  of the documents referring to the query terms
  • the importance od the documents considering the links to a given page
Q:

What does a Crawler do?

A:

A Crawler searches the data repositories(or the web) for new or changes Documents
->  ideally not only including textual documents like HTML-based web pages but also other content formats

Q:

Metadata are a common means for describing the contents of documents. What are their characteristics?

A:
  • Metadata is structured data allowing to locate indormation ressources more easily
  • Metadata is meant to describe content comprehensively
  • Metadata is often referred to as an index (the terms describing them are called indices or index terms) 
  • Metadata is divided into extrinsic, intrinsic and qualitative types
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