Spoken English at TU Braunschweig | Flashcards & Summaries

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The 3 types of Assimilation are...

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 Intensity (voicing)
 typically, regressive devoicing across word boundaries
have to [hæf tuː]


 Place
 typically regressive assimilation of alveolars
 alveolar is articulated more forward: ten pigs [tɛm pɪgz]
 alveolar is articulated more backwards: that case [ðæk keɪs]


 Manner
 rare and limited to very rapid or informal speech, typically regressive
good night [gʊn naɪt] instead of [gʊd naɪt]
shut your mouth [ʃʌt ʃɔː maʊθ] instead of [ʃʌt jɔː maʊθ]

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What kind of stress do the different word categories have?

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-Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs tend to have first-syllable stress

-Verbs tend to have second-syllable stress

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What is a Phone?

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The actual realization of phonemic pronunciation [ ]

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What word categories include Lexical/content words?

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 nouns
 verbs
 adjectives
 lexical prepositions
 most adverbs

= always appear as strong forms

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What does inflection do or not?

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does not affect word stress in English

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What to look out for in compounding?
--> Rule

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The first element receives primary stress

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What is Stress

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Perceptual Prominence of a Syllable

--> Main components:
-Loudness

-Pitch

-Duration

-Sound quality

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The Syllable: Coda

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-Optional
-A structural element that follows the Nucleus

--> Always formed by one or more Consonants

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Allophonic Variants: Devoicing

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-intrinsically voiced sound articulated with less voice

-partly or fully devoiced

-conditioned by the phonetic environment


   -voiced plosives, fricatives, affricates --> devoiced in word-        final position 

   /b, d, g, v, ʤ, ð, z, ʒ/ → [˳] / __)ω


   -Approximants --> devoiced after voiceless plosives /p,t,k/

   /l, r, w/ → [˳] / C[plos][-voi] __


   -Approximant /j/ --> devoiced after voiceless plosives and         after /h/

   /j/ → [˳] / C[plos][-voi] __
   / C[glot] __

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Vowels: Parameters of Describing them

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1. Tounge position  --> Height.  Frontness/backness

2. Lip rounding (Rounded/Unrounded)

3. Tenseness (Tense/Lax)

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What does compounding do to the stress?

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shifts stress to the modifier

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What are strong syllables?

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A syllable with a strong vowel (any V except for //)

--> Strong syllables can be stressed or unstressed

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Q:

The 3 types of Assimilation are...

A:

 Intensity (voicing)
 typically, regressive devoicing across word boundaries
have to [hæf tuː]


 Place
 typically regressive assimilation of alveolars
 alveolar is articulated more forward: ten pigs [tɛm pɪgz]
 alveolar is articulated more backwards: that case [ðæk keɪs]


 Manner
 rare and limited to very rapid or informal speech, typically regressive
good night [gʊn naɪt] instead of [gʊd naɪt]
shut your mouth [ʃʌt ʃɔː maʊθ] instead of [ʃʌt jɔː maʊθ]

Q:

What kind of stress do the different word categories have?

A:

-Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs tend to have first-syllable stress

-Verbs tend to have second-syllable stress

Q:

What is a Phone?

A:

The actual realization of phonemic pronunciation [ ]

Q:

What word categories include Lexical/content words?

A:

 nouns
 verbs
 adjectives
 lexical prepositions
 most adverbs

= always appear as strong forms

Q:

What does inflection do or not?

A:

does not affect word stress in English

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Q:

What to look out for in compounding?
--> Rule

A:

The first element receives primary stress

Q:

What is Stress

A:

Perceptual Prominence of a Syllable

--> Main components:
-Loudness

-Pitch

-Duration

-Sound quality

Q:

The Syllable: Coda

A:

-Optional
-A structural element that follows the Nucleus

--> Always formed by one or more Consonants

Q:

Allophonic Variants: Devoicing

A:

-intrinsically voiced sound articulated with less voice

-partly or fully devoiced

-conditioned by the phonetic environment


   -voiced plosives, fricatives, affricates --> devoiced in word-        final position 

   /b, d, g, v, ʤ, ð, z, ʒ/ → [˳] / __)ω


   -Approximants --> devoiced after voiceless plosives /p,t,k/

   /l, r, w/ → [˳] / C[plos][-voi] __


   -Approximant /j/ --> devoiced after voiceless plosives and         after /h/

   /j/ → [˳] / C[plos][-voi] __
   / C[glot] __

Q:

Vowels: Parameters of Describing them

A:

1. Tounge position  --> Height.  Frontness/backness

2. Lip rounding (Rounded/Unrounded)

3. Tenseness (Tense/Lax)

Q:

What does compounding do to the stress?

A:

shifts stress to the modifier

Q:

What are strong syllables?

A:

A syllable with a strong vowel (any V except for //)

--> Strong syllables can be stressed or unstressed

Spoken English

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