Lingu 2 at TU Braunschweig

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Phonological change: Metathesis

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Kinds of Semantic Changes: Amelioration

Exemplary flashcards for Lingu 2 at the TU Braunschweig on StudySmarter:

Definition: Synonymy


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Exemplary flashcards for Lingu 2 at the TU Braunschweig on StudySmarter:

What is Semantics

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Definition: Reference

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Definition: Opposition

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Definition: Homonomy

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Exemplary flashcards for Lingu 2 at the TU Braunschweig on StudySmarter:

Definition: Polysemy and Metaphorical Extension

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Definition: Meronomy

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What is the concept of Saussure's concept of the sign ?

Exemplary flashcards for Lingu 2 at the TU Braunschweig on StudySmarter:

Definition: Hyponymy

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Exemplary flashcards for Lingu 2 at the TU Braunschweig on StudySmarter:

What is Overextension?

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Exemplary flashcards for Lingu 2 at the TU Braunschweig on StudySmarter:

Lingu 2

Phonological change: Metathesis

= Relative positioning of segments is changed

E.g.: Old English wæps > wæsp ‘wasp’

Lingu 2

Kinds of Semantic Changes: Amelioration

= The meaning of a word becomes more positive or more favourable
E.g.:
pretty = ‘tricky, sly, cunning’ > ‘attractive’

Lingu 2

Definition: Synonymy


= Two or more words have the same meaning
“A has the same meaning as B”
 Total synonymy = Words can be exchanged in every context
E.g.: Apfelsine – Orange in German
 Near synonymy = Differences in meaning on the levels of social and
affective meaning and differences in use
E.g.: violin vs. fiddle
clever vs. smart vs. intelligent

Lingu 2

What is Semantics

Study of the systematic ways in which languages structure meaning

Lingu 2

Definition: Reference

= One concrete
reference of a linguistic
expression to a
person, event, action,
state, etc. in the real
world

Lingu 2

Definition: Opposition

3 Types of Oppositions


Antonymy
= Binary relationship
between terms with
complementary meanings
“A is the opposite of B”
-Gradable antonymy
= Opposite ends of a
continuous scale of values
E.g.: small – large →
smaller – larger
-Nongradable antonymy
(complementarity)
= Mutually exclusive and
complementary
E.g.: single – married
dead – alive


Converseness
= Reciprocal semantic
relationship between
pairs of words
-The same relation is
expressed from
different
perspectives
E.g.: husband – wife
(If A is the husband of B,
then B is the wife of A)


Reverseness
= Relation between
directional opposites
-Turn of direction,
especially of
movement
E.g.: up – down
open – shut

Lingu 2

Definition: Homonomy

Word with the same written and/or spoken form but different meanings

Lingu 2

Definition: Polysemy and Metaphorical Extension

Polysemy:

= Word with more than one meaning


E.g.: foot = (a) ‘part of the body’
= (b) ‘bottom of stairs’
plain = (a) ‘easy, clear’
(plain English)
= (b) ‘undecorated’
(plain white shirt)
= (c) ‘not good looking’
(plain Jane)


Metaphorical Extension:

= Use of a word beyond its
primary meaning to describe
referents that bear similarities to
the word’s primary referent


E.g.: eye → ‘hole at the dull of
a needle’
→ ‘bud on a potato’
→ ‘centre of a storm’

Lingu 2

Definition: Meronomy

= Part/whole-relationship
“B is a part of A”

E.g.: A finger is a part of the hand

Lingu 2

What is the concept of Saussure's concept of the sign ?

You signify a thing (or concept) e.g. the word tree --> signifier
--> the signified is an actual tree

Lingu 2

Definition: Hyponymy

= Reference inclusion
“B is a kind of A”
→ Hierarchical relationship
E.g.: A rose is a kind of flower
flower (y)


co-hyponyms
(several hyponyms of one hyper(o)nym)
→ hyper(o)nym (superordinate, general term)
→ hyponym (subordinate, specific term)
In general:
x refer(s) to y
x is a hyponym of y
hypo = ‘below’

Lingu 2

What is Overextension?

= The meaning of the child’s word is more general or inclusive than that of
the corresponding adult form.

E.g.: All furry creatures are cats.

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