Introduction Descriptive Grammar at TU Braunschweig

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What are word classes?

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Main word classes in English

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What are grammatical functions?
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Difference between word classes and grammatical functions

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What is a clause?

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Obligatory elements of clauses

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Difference between sentences and clauses
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Difference between main clause and subordinates clause

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Subordinate Clauses are also called independent clauses 

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Main clauses cannot stand on their own and need to be accompanied by a subordinate clause in order to form a sentence.

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The obligatory elements of a clause are object and predicate.
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Many subordinate clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction.

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction Descriptive Grammar at the TU Braunschweig on StudySmarter:

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

What are word classes?
All words belong to categories called word classes according to the part they play in a sentence 


Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Main word classes in English
Noun
Verb
Adjective
Adverb
Pronoun
Preposition 
Conjunction 
Determiner
Exclamation

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

What are grammatical functions?
The “rules” of a language, who dictate in which sequence the word classes are allowed to be placed 

Main grammatical functions:
Subject
Predicate/Predicator
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Prepositional Object 
Adverbial

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Difference between word classes and grammatical functions
Word classes describe what words are (e.g. Noun, Verb,...) and grammatical functions explain the relationship between the words and what they do (e.g. subject, predicate,...)

Word classes are formal categories in contrast to grammatical functions 

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

What is a clause?
- Central unit of any language
- Units of language which convey a single message about some event or state, including information about what kind of event or state it is; who is taking part; where, when, why or how it happened etc.
- Consists of subject + predicate 

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Obligatory elements of clauses
Predicate/Verb (V)
Subject (SUB)
Direct Object (DO)
Indirect Object (IO)
Subject predicative (PS)
Object predicative (PO)
Adverbial (A)

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Difference between sentences and clauses
-> A clause cannot stand on its own 
-> A sentence hast to include at least one clause (main clause, subordinate clause...)
-> Sentence can be seen as a whole while clauses are only parts of it

Although it was raining outside, I went for a walk. 

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Difference between main clause and subordinates clause
Main clause
Makes sense by itself

Subordinate clause
Doesn’t make sense without a main clause; refers to the main clause 

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Subordinate Clauses are also called independent clauses 
False 

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Main clauses cannot stand on their own and need to be accompanied by a subordinate clause in order to form a sentence.
False

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

The obligatory elements of a clause are object and predicate.
False

Introduction Descriptive Grammar

Many subordinate clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction.
True

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