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Lernmaterialien für FHMI an der TU Berlin

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What are the two major BCI-detectable EEG/MEG phenomena?

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Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and Oscillatory processes

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What are the largest contributors to the EEG singal in underlying brain processes?

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Largest contributors to the EEG are the

pyramidal cells.

They are radially oriented in the cortex

(orthogonal to the surface)

Electromagnetic fields of co-aligned and co-activated neurons add up

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Through what is the neural activity contucted and how?

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1. through the brain volume to the scalp and sensors by Volume Conduction

2. Volume conduction is linear

3. Each sensor measures a (weighted)

sum of each neuron’s activity

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What is an ERP?

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Averaging EEG activity relative to an event results in primarily event-induced activity (trial-to-trial variability averaged out)

Single-trial ERPs are much harder to identify


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From which areas which oscillatoric processes can be detected? Alpha, Beta, Theta 

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Alpha: Sensory areas (visual cortex, auditory cortex) and Motor areas (motor cortex) exhibit strong alpha-band oscillations when “idle” in most subjects


Beta: Motor cortex often generates also beta-band oscillations


Theta: Known to occur in “bursts” relative to events in certain brain areas (e.g. frontal midline, lateral frontal, …)

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What 3 major BCI categories exist?

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1. SSVEP (Steady state visually evoked potential)
2. P300 ERPs

3. Motor-Imagery (MI)

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SSVEP - how does it work?

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Steady state visually evoked potential

Responses to visual stimulation

● Retina is excited by a visual stimulus

○ ranging from 3.5 Hz to 75 Hz

● Excellent signal-to-noise ratio

● High information transfer rates

● Other types of evoked potentials:

○ Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) generated by clicks or tones (i.e., auditory stimuli)

○ Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) caused by somatosensory stimulation

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How do you spot a P300 event?

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1. An event-related potential is generated during what is known as the oddball paradigm

2. The sudden occurrence of the target stimulus elicits a peak about 300 ms after the presentation

3. P300 BCI can provide means for effective communication

a. No training needed

b. short latencies

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Motor-Imagery BCI - how does it work?

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1. User can generate induced activity from motor cortex by imagining motor movements without any limb movement or external stimulus

2. Mental imagination of movements involves similar brain regions/functions with motor execution

3. Repeated practice can induce changes in the brain

4. BCI Boosts motor imagery efficacy during stroke recovery

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Why should CSPs (Common Spatial Filters) NOT be used for ERP classification?

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a crucial information for classifying ERP is the EEG time course.

However, CSP completely ignores this time course as it only considers the average power. Therefore, CSP is not suitable for ERP classification.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

​What filter types are used in BCIs?

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○ Static filters

○ Temporal filters

○ Spatial filters

○ Spectral filters

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When would 50.000 neurons fire near synchronously?

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○ – An external event triggers a cascade of related neural processes

(e.g., in perception)

○ – An internal event triggers a cascade of related neural processes

(e.g., sudden “aha!”)

○ – Neural populations enter a synchronized steady-state firing pattern

(e.g., idle oscillations)



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Q:

What are the two major BCI-detectable EEG/MEG phenomena?

A:

Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and Oscillatory processes

Q:

What are the largest contributors to the EEG singal in underlying brain processes?

A:

Largest contributors to the EEG are the

pyramidal cells.

They are radially oriented in the cortex

(orthogonal to the surface)

Electromagnetic fields of co-aligned and co-activated neurons add up

Q:

Through what is the neural activity contucted and how?

A:

1. through the brain volume to the scalp and sensors by Volume Conduction

2. Volume conduction is linear

3. Each sensor measures a (weighted)

sum of each neuron’s activity

Q:

What is an ERP?

A:

Averaging EEG activity relative to an event results in primarily event-induced activity (trial-to-trial variability averaged out)

Single-trial ERPs are much harder to identify


Q:

From which areas which oscillatoric processes can be detected? Alpha, Beta, Theta 

A:

Alpha: Sensory areas (visual cortex, auditory cortex) and Motor areas (motor cortex) exhibit strong alpha-band oscillations when “idle” in most subjects


Beta: Motor cortex often generates also beta-band oscillations


Theta: Known to occur in “bursts” relative to events in certain brain areas (e.g. frontal midline, lateral frontal, …)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What 3 major BCI categories exist?

A:

1. SSVEP (Steady state visually evoked potential)
2. P300 ERPs

3. Motor-Imagery (MI)

Q:

SSVEP - how does it work?

A:
Steady state visually evoked potential

Responses to visual stimulation

● Retina is excited by a visual stimulus

○ ranging from 3.5 Hz to 75 Hz

● Excellent signal-to-noise ratio

● High information transfer rates

● Other types of evoked potentials:

○ Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) generated by clicks or tones (i.e., auditory stimuli)

○ Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) caused by somatosensory stimulation

Q:

How do you spot a P300 event?

A:

1. An event-related potential is generated during what is known as the oddball paradigm

2. The sudden occurrence of the target stimulus elicits a peak about 300 ms after the presentation

3. P300 BCI can provide means for effective communication

a. No training needed

b. short latencies

Q:

Motor-Imagery BCI - how does it work?

A:

1. User can generate induced activity from motor cortex by imagining motor movements without any limb movement or external stimulus

2. Mental imagination of movements involves similar brain regions/functions with motor execution

3. Repeated practice can induce changes in the brain

4. BCI Boosts motor imagery efficacy during stroke recovery

Q:

Why should CSPs (Common Spatial Filters) NOT be used for ERP classification?

A:

a crucial information for classifying ERP is the EEG time course.

However, CSP completely ignores this time course as it only considers the average power. Therefore, CSP is not suitable for ERP classification.


Q:

​What filter types are used in BCIs?

A:

○ Static filters

○ Temporal filters

○ Spatial filters

○ Spectral filters

Q:

When would 50.000 neurons fire near synchronously?

A:

○ – An external event triggers a cascade of related neural processes

(e.g., in perception)

○ – An internal event triggers a cascade of related neural processes

(e.g., sudden “aha!”)

○ – Neural populations enter a synchronized steady-state firing pattern

(e.g., idle oscillations)



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