Cloud Computing at TU Berlin

Flashcards and summaries for Cloud Computing at the TU Berlin

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Cloud Computing at the TU Berlin

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What is trap and emulate?

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Defintion: Grids

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Definition: Cloud Computing

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Five Characteristics of Cloud Computing

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Hardware-Assisted Virtualization

Requires modified guest OS?

Requires hardware support?

What about performance?

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Summary: Scalable and Fault-Tolerant Applications

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Definition: Clusters

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Definition: Virtualization (NIST)

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Containers

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Why is virtualization so important nowadays? 

IaaS Providers

What are their challenges?

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Defintion: Virtualization 

(in context of Iaas Providers)

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Definition: Virtual Machine

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Exemplary flashcards for Cloud Computing at the TU Berlin on StudySmarter:

Cloud Computing

What is trap and emulate?

- Instruction conflicts with host operating system

  --> Hypervisor (VMM) emulates the effect of specific instruction

       --> Host OS is not changed by this

Cloud Computing

Defintion: Grids

● Widely distributed heterogeneous compute resources 

● Connected via a slow network (i.e. the internet) 

● Heterogeneous software stacks unified by a middleware 

● Examples 

  • Worldwide LHC Computing Grid
  • BOINC

Cloud Computing

Definition: Cloud Computing

“Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.


This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.“

Cloud Computing

Five Characteristics of Cloud Computing

● On-demand self-service

  • No human interaction required for resource provisioning

● Broad network access

  • Accessible over network with standard mechanisms

● Resource pooling

  • Pooled resources dynamically shared among several

consumers, location independence

● Rapid elasticity

  • Capabilities can be provisioned/released on demand

● Measured service

  • Resource usage is monitored, controlled, and reported

Cloud Computing

Hardware-Assisted Virtualization

Requires modified guest OS?

Requires hardware support?

What about performance?

Requires modified guest OS? NO

Requires hardware support? YES


● Pros:

   ■ Improved performance even for unmodified guest OSs

● Cons:

   ■ Reduced flexibility due to hardware constraints (especially for 3rd generation HW support) and specialized hardware required

Cloud Computing

Summary: Scalable and Fault-Tolerant Applications

● Scaling-out to more virtual resources: scalability and fault tolerance

   ■ Load balancing for replicated stateless components

   ■ Load balancing and data consistency models for replicated stateful components

● The higher the consistency level, the less scalable replicated services are

● System components fail eventually, decide for either availability or consistency as a system’s designer

Cloud Computing

Definition: Clusters

Mostly homogeneous compute resources and software stacks 

Interconnected by a low-latency and high-bandwidth (local area) network

● Goal: improving availability, price/performance, resource utilization 

● Examples

Analytics cluster at Facebook and Yahoo!

Cloud Computing

Definition: Virtualization (NIST)

“Virtualization is the simulation of the software and/or hardware upon

which other software runs. This simulated environment is called a virtual machine (VM).“


● Virtualization can transform a real systm so

    ■ it looks like a different virtual system

    ■ multiple virtual systems

Cloud Computing

Containers

Lightweight “OS-level virtualization”: isolated

environments for single applications within an OS

No virtual hardware: cannot run an application build for

a different architecture or operating system kernel

Reduced scope: single application in pre-build

environments

Reduced isolation: containerized applications share the

same kernel, but are isolated on process-level

■ Live migration is more difficult


● Yet: Smaller container images, faster container startup, and reduced overhead


Analogy to ship containers: - Easy to move, isolated and standardized, but can also communicate with eachother

Cloud Computing

Why is virtualization so important nowadays? 

IaaS Providers

What are their challenges?

Rapid provisioning

■ Resources must be available to the consumer quickly

■ No human interaction during provisioning

Elasticity

■ Create illusion of infinite resources

■ Yet, manage data center in a cost-efficient manner

 Isolation of different consumers

■ Users must not interfere with each other

Performance

■ Maintain good performance despite other challenges

Cloud Computing

Defintion: Virtualization 

(in context of Iaas Providers)

■ Provide resources in the form of virtual machines (VMs)

■ Different types of VMs available

♦ Different hardware characteristics (CPU, memory, disk)

♦ Different images available (e.g. Windows with Microsoft

SQL)

♦ Additional storage can be integrated into VMs

■ Providers charge depending on VM type and usage time

♦ Predominant model: “pay by the hour” of VM instances

♦ Also: pay-per-use of specific resources (e.g. data

downloaded from VM instances)

Cloud Computing

Definition: Virtual Machine

Hardware that is used by operating system and running processes is not real, but instead virtual

--> OS and processes run on software emulating hardware

Use cases:

   ■ Run a different operating system than installed on host

   ■ Run applications in isolation

   ■ Run multiple virtual machines on a single physical host

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