Personality Psychology at Tilburg University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Personality Psychology an der Tilburg University

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electrodes

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Most of the common physiological measures in personality research are obtained from electrodes, or sensors placed on the surface of a participant’s skin.

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electrodermal activity/ Skin conductance

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Even before the sweat is visible, however, it can be detected by the clever application of a small amount of electricity because water (i.e., sweat) conducts electricity. The more water present in the skin, the more easily the skin carries, or conducts, electricity. This bioelectric process, known as electrodermal activity (dermal means “of the skin”), or skin conductance, makes it possible for researchers to directly measure sympathetic nervous system activity.

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ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)

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a structure in the brain stem thought to control overall cortical arousal.

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Physiological differences between introverts and extroverts

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Extraverts and introverts do not differ in their level of brain activity

while sleeping, for example, or while lying quietly in a darkened room with their eyes shut (Stelmack, 1990). However, when presented with moderate levels of stimulation,

introverts show enhanced physiological reactivity compared with extraverts (Gale, 1987).


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reasons for stress: secondary appraisal

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, is when

the person concludes that he or she does not have the resources to cope with the demands

of the threatening event

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5 sources of s-data

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1. Experimental methods
2. Implicit tests
3. Mechanical registration equipment
4. Physiological data
5. Projective techniques

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The act frequency approach to traits involves three key elements:

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act nomination: a procedure designed to identify which acts belong in which trait categories.
prototypicality judgment/assessment: identifying which acts are most central to, or prototypical of,
each trait category.

○ For example, raters find the acts She controlled the outcome of the meeting
without the others being aware of it and She took charge after the accident
to be more prototypically dominant than the act She deliberately arrived late for the meeting.

the recording of act performance: securing information on the actual performance of individuals in
their daily lives.

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Genotype–environment interaction

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refers to the differential response of individuals with different
genotypes (e.g. introverts and extraverts) to the same environments (e.g. noise in the room).


Extraverts can focus more when there is distracation, introverts can not. They behave
differently to the same environment.
• Individual differences interact with the environment to affect performance.
Exposure to the same environment (abusive parenting) produces different effects on
personality, depending on the differences in genotype.

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schizotypal personality disorders

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Schizotypes are anxious and uncomfortable in social situations, especially if those situations
involve strangers. Schizotypal persons also feel that they are different from others or that they
do not fit in with the group

• less anxious as they become more familiar with the group

tend to be suspicious of others and are not prone to trust others or to relax in
their presence.

Eccentric: doesnot fit in the social group.

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power stress:

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When high nPow people do not get their way or when their power is challenged or blocked, they are
likely to show strong stress responses.

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health behavior model

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adds another factor to the transactional

model. It is important to realize that so far the two models are simply extensions

of the theme that personality influences the stress–illness link. In the third model, which

is depicted in Figure 18.1(c), personality does not directly influence the relationship

between stress and illness. Instead, in this model, personality affects health indirectly

through health-promoting or health-degrading behavio

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Chronic stress

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is another serious form of stress. It refers to stress that does not
end. It grinds us down until our resistance is gone.

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Q:

electrodes

A:

Most of the common physiological measures in personality research are obtained from electrodes, or sensors placed on the surface of a participant’s skin.

Q:

electrodermal activity/ Skin conductance

A:

Even before the sweat is visible, however, it can be detected by the clever application of a small amount of electricity because water (i.e., sweat) conducts electricity. The more water present in the skin, the more easily the skin carries, or conducts, electricity. This bioelectric process, known as electrodermal activity (dermal means “of the skin”), or skin conductance, makes it possible for researchers to directly measure sympathetic nervous system activity.

Q:

ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)

A:

a structure in the brain stem thought to control overall cortical arousal.

Q:

Physiological differences between introverts and extroverts

A:

Extraverts and introverts do not differ in their level of brain activity

while sleeping, for example, or while lying quietly in a darkened room with their eyes shut (Stelmack, 1990). However, when presented with moderate levels of stimulation,

introverts show enhanced physiological reactivity compared with extraverts (Gale, 1987).


Q:

reasons for stress: secondary appraisal

A:

, is when

the person concludes that he or she does not have the resources to cope with the demands

of the threatening event

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

5 sources of s-data

A:

1. Experimental methods
2. Implicit tests
3. Mechanical registration equipment
4. Physiological data
5. Projective techniques

Q:

The act frequency approach to traits involves three key elements:

A:

act nomination: a procedure designed to identify which acts belong in which trait categories.
prototypicality judgment/assessment: identifying which acts are most central to, or prototypical of,
each trait category.

○ For example, raters find the acts She controlled the outcome of the meeting
without the others being aware of it and She took charge after the accident
to be more prototypically dominant than the act She deliberately arrived late for the meeting.

the recording of act performance: securing information on the actual performance of individuals in
their daily lives.

Q:

Genotype–environment interaction

A:

refers to the differential response of individuals with different
genotypes (e.g. introverts and extraverts) to the same environments (e.g. noise in the room).


Extraverts can focus more when there is distracation, introverts can not. They behave
differently to the same environment.
• Individual differences interact with the environment to affect performance.
Exposure to the same environment (abusive parenting) produces different effects on
personality, depending on the differences in genotype.

Q:

schizotypal personality disorders

A:

Schizotypes are anxious and uncomfortable in social situations, especially if those situations
involve strangers. Schizotypal persons also feel that they are different from others or that they
do not fit in with the group

• less anxious as they become more familiar with the group

tend to be suspicious of others and are not prone to trust others or to relax in
their presence.

Eccentric: doesnot fit in the social group.

Q:

power stress:

A:

When high nPow people do not get their way or when their power is challenged or blocked, they are
likely to show strong stress responses.

Q:

health behavior model

A:

adds another factor to the transactional

model. It is important to realize that so far the two models are simply extensions

of the theme that personality influences the stress–illness link. In the third model, which

is depicted in Figure 18.1(c), personality does not directly influence the relationship

between stress and illness. Instead, in this model, personality affects health indirectly

through health-promoting or health-degrading behavio

Q:

Chronic stress

A:

is another serious form of stress. It refers to stress that does not
end. It grinds us down until our resistance is gone.

Personality Psychology

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