Cancer at The Manchester Metropolitan University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Cancer an der The Manchester Metropolitan University

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Types of DNA repair
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-single strand break repair: DNA ligase
-Base Excision Repair (BER): involves removal of bases damaged by ionising radiation 
-Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER): removes oligonucleotide containing pyrimidine dimer - DNA polymerase & ligase fill removed section 
-Homologous recombination repair of DS breaks involves homologous DNA as template for repair
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Classification of tumours
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Behavioural 
  • Benign 
  • Malignant 
Histogenetic
  • Cell of origin
Precise classification of tumour is important for planning effective treatment 
  • TNM classification 
  • Staging
  • Grading
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Types of genetic mutations?
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-DNA mutation 
  • Missense point mutation 
  • Non-sense point mutation 
  • Framshift mutation
-Chromosomal mutation 
  • Amplification 
  • Deletion 
  • Translocation 
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Define Oncogenic Viruses
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-during viral replication process, virus's DNA or RNA affects host cells genes in way that may cause it to become cancerous 
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What is Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) ?
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Autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair (NER) 
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Bodyweight & Cancer
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Obesity can increase risk of Colon and Breast cancer
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What is Hyperplasia?
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Cell response to specific stimulus- rapid increase of cells within organ/tissue 
May result in gross enlargement of organ thus form benign tumour 
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Causes of Cancer
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-acquisition of mutations 
  • Inborn zygotic mutations 
  • Somatic mutations
-environmental factors 
  • Viruses 
  • Chemicals
  • Radiation
-abnormal tissue micro environment (ATME)
  • Blood and lymphatic vasculature
  • Fibroblasts
  • Immune cells
  • Extra cellular matrix & signalling molecules
  • Characterised by hypoxia
-Age & Lifestyle 
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What is Hypertrophy?
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Increase in size of organ due to cell size increase WITHOUT increase in cell number 
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BRCA1 and BRCA2
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Mutations associated with increased susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer
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Characteristics of Malignant cells
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-loss of growth control 
-resistance to apoptosis
-unlimited replicative potential (telomere)
-sustained angiogenesis 
-ability to invade surrounding tissue
-ability to colonise & survive in ecotopic
Environment (metastasis)
-exhibit anchorage-independent growth & lose sensitivity of contact-inhibition
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Features of Benign Tumour:
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-encapsulated 
-non invasive 
-highly differentiated 
-few mitotic figures 
-slow/ no growth 
-little anaplasia (cellular differentiation)
-non metastatic (cant spread from primary site to diff body part) 
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Q:
Types of DNA repair
A:
-single strand break repair: DNA ligase
-Base Excision Repair (BER): involves removal of bases damaged by ionising radiation 
-Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER): removes oligonucleotide containing pyrimidine dimer - DNA polymerase & ligase fill removed section 
-Homologous recombination repair of DS breaks involves homologous DNA as template for repair
Q:
Classification of tumours
A:
Behavioural 
  • Benign 
  • Malignant 
Histogenetic
  • Cell of origin
Precise classification of tumour is important for planning effective treatment 
  • TNM classification 
  • Staging
  • Grading
Q:
Types of genetic mutations?
A:
-DNA mutation 
  • Missense point mutation 
  • Non-sense point mutation 
  • Framshift mutation
-Chromosomal mutation 
  • Amplification 
  • Deletion 
  • Translocation 
Q:
Define Oncogenic Viruses
A:
-during viral replication process, virus's DNA or RNA affects host cells genes in way that may cause it to become cancerous 
Q:
What is Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) ?
A:
Autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair (NER) 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Bodyweight & Cancer
A:
Obesity can increase risk of Colon and Breast cancer
Q:
What is Hyperplasia?
A:
Cell response to specific stimulus- rapid increase of cells within organ/tissue 
May result in gross enlargement of organ thus form benign tumour 
Q:
Causes of Cancer
A:
-acquisition of mutations 
  • Inborn zygotic mutations 
  • Somatic mutations
-environmental factors 
  • Viruses 
  • Chemicals
  • Radiation
-abnormal tissue micro environment (ATME)
  • Blood and lymphatic vasculature
  • Fibroblasts
  • Immune cells
  • Extra cellular matrix & signalling molecules
  • Characterised by hypoxia
-Age & Lifestyle 
Q:
What is Hypertrophy?
A:
Increase in size of organ due to cell size increase WITHOUT increase in cell number 
Q:
BRCA1 and BRCA2
A:
Mutations associated with increased susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer
Q:
Characteristics of Malignant cells
A:
-loss of growth control 
-resistance to apoptosis
-unlimited replicative potential (telomere)
-sustained angiogenesis 
-ability to invade surrounding tissue
-ability to colonise & survive in ecotopic
Environment (metastasis)
-exhibit anchorage-independent growth & lose sensitivity of contact-inhibition
Q:
Features of Benign Tumour:
A:
-encapsulated 
-non invasive 
-highly differentiated 
-few mitotic figures 
-slow/ no growth 
-little anaplasia (cellular differentiation)
-non metastatic (cant spread from primary site to diff body part) 
Cancer

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