Sales at Technische Hochschule Nürnberg | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Sales an der Technische Hochschule Nürnberg

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the major reasons for re shoring trend of the MNCs in the recent decade?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- political pressure, improvement of brand image (e.g. made in DE), less shipping, decrease of dependence, improvement of product quality

- external and internal driver

- COO- country of origin effect

- Germans are excited to buy German products --> consumer behaviour, emoition

- profit driving: producing in China means additional shipping & made in DE can have a higher price

- quality of production: depending on partner it can be flucuating in China, in DE ist is very stable, only small differences in quality.

- governmental promotion: if production goes bak to the US.

- Driving factors: looking for better profit, quality and public opinion.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the types of regional trading blocks?



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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

5 Political union: complete integration of political & economic policy (e.g. EU of the future)


4 Monetary union: Common currency, free movement of capital & labour, integrated agreement with uniform tariff policy toward non.- memeber countreis and within region e.g. Euro zone


3 common market: free movement of cpital & labour within the market, integrated agreement with uniform tariff poliies toward non-member countries and within e.g. EU


2 custom union: Uniform tariff policies towards non menber countries and reduction of tariffs, quotas and other barriers (MErcosur, APEC)


1 Free trade area: group of countries sign an agreement to reduce tariffs, quotas & other barriers ( Nafta, rcep, asean)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is a trader?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Indirect sales (you use intermediate)


A person who is buying and selling such as merchant or a person who buys and sells something (such as stocks or commodity feature) in the search of short-term profits.

--> intermediates as trader: as domestic company you sign a contract with a foreign company, you deliver product to trader than trader owns the product and sells it to end user

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which 3 countries had the hihgest FDI outflow from 2013 to 2017?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

US 20%, Japan and China 10%

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Give an example of user interface customization.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Implementing a smartphone update in specific countries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the different agent options?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Sales representatives

- legal person (export agent)

- general representation agreement with the principle for specific regions & within certain periods

- a representattive may repreent one or several companies.

- a company can make use of several or one (exclusive) representative


Broker (Handeslmakler)

-legal or natural person

- permanent contract relationship with principla not necessary

- conduct business transactions on a case by case base

- purchase contract may also be contracted between customer & end user, with a contract note of trade brokers.


Sales representative and broker:

- acts on principal's name & principals invoice (broker sells good & invoice and payment goes to company)

- gets a commission or courtage from principal

- main activities: business acquistion, negotiation & conclusion of the contract 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the 4 basic asprcts of globalizatio according to IMF

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Trade & transactions: very important for DE especially

2. Capital & investment movements: it is all over the world today.

3. Migration & movement of people employees move to other countries but migration also means more flexibiity for people

4. Dissemination of knowledge: information exchange through the internet & technology is easier, especially smartphones make it easier

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the contributions and limits of national organizations?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Contributions:

- substantioal reduction of tariff trade barriers in the early years

- settlement of dispute in international trade

- promotion and support of economic development

- guidelines & agreements in certain economic areas


Limits

- no suprational institution, therefore no sufficient enforcement competences against global great power.

- decision process base on consensus.

- tension balance between world-wide free trade ideal on the one hand & national/regional intrest on the other hand

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the 4P's that have to be considered when talking about the international market entry strategy?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Price: same price in every country? or different prices in different countries?


Place: especially sales distribution & sales channels (no tension field, just what kind of strategies you have


Promotion: Today probably the website, same website for every country or different websites/ads?


Tension field: impacts price, product and promotion, If you want to introduce the same product in ever country (standardization) or different products in different countries (differentiation.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the major functions of the WTO today?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Promote & liberalize world trade 

- keep MFN as formal princiople for multi-lateral co-operation between the members

- allowing establishment of regional trade blocks as supplement

- further reduction of trade barriers focused on non-tariffs areas

- monitoring nationsl trade policies

 

Forum for national governments for trade negotiation & to settle trade disputes


Technical assistance for developing countries.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the long term motivations and the short term triggers for FDIs?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Strategic motivations (major drivers)

- more efficient development of local market (you have to be close to customer, that is why you need local market)

- realize cost advantage of the host country

- access to relecant know-how & information (to get more advanced technology. The best M&A need it for future development of the company.


Occasional trigger (Timing)

- follow market leader in respective branch (e.g.  India is a good future market)

- follow the customer (VW needs tomove suppliers to china)

- fulfill regulatory requirements: factory in local country

- benefit from governmental promotion program

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the difference between a FDI and portfolio investment?


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FDI

- ownership in a resident entity in another economy

- control & major influenceas key motivation

- long term oriented interest


Portfolio investment

- shared participation in a resident entity 

- finacial return as key motivation

- mid- and short term oriented 

(e.g. investment banking, private company, invest in 10 different companies)

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

What are the major reasons for re shoring trend of the MNCs in the recent decade?

A:

- political pressure, improvement of brand image (e.g. made in DE), less shipping, decrease of dependence, improvement of product quality

- external and internal driver

- COO- country of origin effect

- Germans are excited to buy German products --> consumer behaviour, emoition

- profit driving: producing in China means additional shipping & made in DE can have a higher price

- quality of production: depending on partner it can be flucuating in China, in DE ist is very stable, only small differences in quality.

- governmental promotion: if production goes bak to the US.

- Driving factors: looking for better profit, quality and public opinion.


Q:

What are the types of regional trading blocks?



A:

5 Political union: complete integration of political & economic policy (e.g. EU of the future)


4 Monetary union: Common currency, free movement of capital & labour, integrated agreement with uniform tariff policy toward non.- memeber countreis and within region e.g. Euro zone


3 common market: free movement of cpital & labour within the market, integrated agreement with uniform tariff poliies toward non-member countries and within e.g. EU


2 custom union: Uniform tariff policies towards non menber countries and reduction of tariffs, quotas and other barriers (MErcosur, APEC)


1 Free trade area: group of countries sign an agreement to reduce tariffs, quotas & other barriers ( Nafta, rcep, asean)

Q:

What is a trader?

A:

Indirect sales (you use intermediate)


A person who is buying and selling such as merchant or a person who buys and sells something (such as stocks or commodity feature) in the search of short-term profits.

--> intermediates as trader: as domestic company you sign a contract with a foreign company, you deliver product to trader than trader owns the product and sells it to end user

Q:

Which 3 countries had the hihgest FDI outflow from 2013 to 2017?

A:

US 20%, Japan and China 10%

Q:

Give an example of user interface customization.

A:

Implementing a smartphone update in specific countries

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are the different agent options?

A:

Sales representatives

- legal person (export agent)

- general representation agreement with the principle for specific regions & within certain periods

- a representattive may repreent one or several companies.

- a company can make use of several or one (exclusive) representative


Broker (Handeslmakler)

-legal or natural person

- permanent contract relationship with principla not necessary

- conduct business transactions on a case by case base

- purchase contract may also be contracted between customer & end user, with a contract note of trade brokers.


Sales representative and broker:

- acts on principal's name & principals invoice (broker sells good & invoice and payment goes to company)

- gets a commission or courtage from principal

- main activities: business acquistion, negotiation & conclusion of the contract 

Q:

What are the 4 basic asprcts of globalizatio according to IMF

A:

1. Trade & transactions: very important for DE especially

2. Capital & investment movements: it is all over the world today.

3. Migration & movement of people employees move to other countries but migration also means more flexibiity for people

4. Dissemination of knowledge: information exchange through the internet & technology is easier, especially smartphones make it easier

Q:

What are the contributions and limits of national organizations?

A:

Contributions:

- substantioal reduction of tariff trade barriers in the early years

- settlement of dispute in international trade

- promotion and support of economic development

- guidelines & agreements in certain economic areas


Limits

- no suprational institution, therefore no sufficient enforcement competences against global great power.

- decision process base on consensus.

- tension balance between world-wide free trade ideal on the one hand & national/regional intrest on the other hand

Q:

What are the 4P's that have to be considered when talking about the international market entry strategy?

A:

Price: same price in every country? or different prices in different countries?


Place: especially sales distribution & sales channels (no tension field, just what kind of strategies you have


Promotion: Today probably the website, same website for every country or different websites/ads?


Tension field: impacts price, product and promotion, If you want to introduce the same product in ever country (standardization) or different products in different countries (differentiation.

Q:

What are the major functions of the WTO today?

A:

Promote & liberalize world trade 

- keep MFN as formal princiople for multi-lateral co-operation between the members

- allowing establishment of regional trade blocks as supplement

- further reduction of trade barriers focused on non-tariffs areas

- monitoring nationsl trade policies

 

Forum for national governments for trade negotiation & to settle trade disputes


Technical assistance for developing countries.

Q:

What are the long term motivations and the short term triggers for FDIs?

A:

Strategic motivations (major drivers)

- more efficient development of local market (you have to be close to customer, that is why you need local market)

- realize cost advantage of the host country

- access to relecant know-how & information (to get more advanced technology. The best M&A need it for future development of the company.


Occasional trigger (Timing)

- follow market leader in respective branch (e.g.  India is a good future market)

- follow the customer (VW needs tomove suppliers to china)

- fulfill regulatory requirements: factory in local country

- benefit from governmental promotion program

Q:

What is the difference between a FDI and portfolio investment?


A:

FDI

- ownership in a resident entity in another economy

- control & major influenceas key motivation

- long term oriented interest


Portfolio investment

- shared participation in a resident entity 

- finacial return as key motivation

- mid- and short term oriented 

(e.g. investment banking, private company, invest in 10 different companies)

Sales

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