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Oxidation and reduction  in rock weathering


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Is a chemical weathering process. Oxidation of a variety of metals occurs within the weathering environment. 

Very common is iron oxidation: Fe2+ Fe3+ + e 

most common Iron Oxides: Goethite and hematite Fe2O3 (specially in the tropics)

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What is Erosion?

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Erosion is the displacement of solids (rock, sediment, soil, and other particles) by the agents of currents such as wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms (=bioerosion). 

 

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What is Deposition?

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Deposition is the geological process by which material is added to a landform or land mass. Wind and water, as well as sediment gravity flows, transport previously eroded sediment, which, at the loss of enough kinetic energy in the fluid, is deposited, building up layers of sediment. 

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What is Weathering ? 

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Weathering  is a process in which soil or rocks are disintegrated into smaller sizes by weather influence and the preparation of the weathered material for erosion processes and soil development (pedogenesis)


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BIOLOGICAL weathering

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Can be Physical (roots breaking the rocks)

or Chemical (production of acidic compounds by animals or plants, e.g. acidic root exudation) lichen and mosses create more humid microenvironment which can weak the rock -chemical weathering

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Explain the model of  PLATE TECTONICS

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•The movement of continents relative to each other from convective forces within the elastic Asthenosphere
•7 lithospheric plates that float on viscoelastic Asthenosphere. These plates move due to convective currents. 
•Convective currents are driven by radioactive decay deep in the earth mantle 
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What are the main erosion types? 

Give at least one example for each.

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Erosion: The displacement of solids by wind, water or ice

  1. Gravity Erosion: Landslides or avalanches often triggered by rainfall, animals or wind
  2. Water Erosion: Fluvial erosion - Runoff or rivers or splach effect
  3. Wind Erosion: Small particles are lifted and transported to another region
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what is LOESS?

example

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Is a type of fine-grained AEOLIAN or WIND BLOWN SEDIMENT that is rich in SILT and has 20% or less of clay and is usually very nutrient-rich and very suitable for agricultural land but is also very prompt to erosion.

Around 10% of global land is covered by loess or similar deposits. 

Examples: Patagonia _ Argentina

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What are the main two types of weathering?
 Name 3 examples of each. 
 Name, if known, places/countries where they occur.

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There are two types of weathering: PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL. (biological weathering can be physical (roots) or chemical (root acid exudation). 

PHYSICAL: 

  1. Thermal expansion  (Occurs in deserts (Sahara) due to large variations in temperature between day and night >40ºC variation > Rock heats during day, at night it cracks due to sudden cooling)
  2. Frost disintegration ( Ice forms in the wedges of the rocks -> as water expands (greatest density at 4ºC) = the rock cracks > Occurs in areas where the temperature is always close to the freezing point- Examples: pick of mountains - Andes (over 5000 masl)
  3. Exfoliation: when overlaying materials are removed, the underlying rocks can expand causing fractures parallel to the surface.
  4. Biological Processes: Plant root mechanics. Plants grow on rocks and the roots create pressure on the rocks when they grow in the gaps > increasing the gaps •Example: Amazon Rainforest. Angkorwat, Cambodia (not really in the deserts -> need wet climate)
  5. Salt-crystal growth (haloclasty): Saline solutions flow into the cracks between the rocks, water evaporates and salt is left -> Salt crystals expand as they are heated -> exert pressure on confining rocks (similar to ice wedging) •Most (semi) arid environment _ coast UTah , Malta
  6. Wetting and drying (slacking) > rocks are mechanically disintegrated by the accumulation of successive layers of water molecules in between the mineral grains of a rock. Can be seen as physicochemical and are typical for sedimentary rocks with high content of clay
  7. Hydraulic - when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering (rivers , waterfalls)


CHEMICAL:
  1. Dissolution (=solution) and Carbonation 
    •Water reacts with CO2 to create slightly acidic rainwater (Carbon acid) 
    •Real acid rain occurs when rainwater reacts with sulfur and nitrogen, originates from volcanoes or human fossil fuel burning
    •Rain dissolute the calcium carbonate in carbonate rocks (very alkaline) AND DOLOMITE ROCKS (limestone, dolomite, marble , chalk)
    •As acidity increases the dissolution will increase
    •Examples: Limestone areas in Laos or Vietnam (Karst landscapes)
  2. Hydration (physicochemical) 
    • Rigid attachment of H+ (protons) and OH-ions (hydroxide) to the atoms and molecules of minerals (electrostatic forces
    • Size of the mineral structure is increased, causing stress (weakness)
    • Example: Feldspar
  3. Hydrolysis 
    • Affect silicate minerals. Pure water ionizes slightly and reacts with silicate minerals. Most minerals are weathering that way.
  4. Oxidation and reduction :
    • Oxidation of a variety of metals occurs within the weathering environment. Very common is iron oxidation: Fe2+ Fe3+ + e
  5. Biological (chemical) processes 
•Root hair release chemical acid solutions which attack the rocks chemically 
•Some bacteria which are on the rocks which attack the rocks chemically  (change the chemical characteristics of rocks)


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe how Karst landscapes evolve (which weathering process and rock types are characteristic?) 


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KARST landscapes are formed in areas  with soluble rocks like limestone predominate and where the overlying soil cover has been removed and the rock is then exposed to chemical weathering. Limestone is a sedimentary rock that has calcium carbonate that is subject to carbonation that is a chemical dissolution that happens when rain falls and picks up CO2 from the atmosphere forming carbonic acid. This carbonic acid combine with the calcium carbonate forming Calcium Bicarbonate that can dissolve in water. This dissolution of the bedrock creates sinkholes, caves (with stalagtites and stalagmites), sinking streams and other features of Karst landscapes.

Examples: Switzerland ( vallorbe Grottes) Vietnam (Ha Long Bay)

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explain Hydration in rock weathering.

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Is a physicochemical process that involces the attachment of H+(proton) or HO (- ion) to mineral components increasing the structure and causing stress - weakness.  

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explain Hydrolysis Chemical weathering 

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Hydrolysis Chemical weathering process affecting silicate minerals (SixOy). Pure water ionizes slightly and reacts with silicate minerals. Most minerals are weathering that way (more than 90% of the Earth’s crust are silicates; examples are olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, clay minerals, quartz, and feldspars). Example Feldspar: 

KAlSi3O8 + H+ + OH- -> HAlSi3O8 + K+ + OH 

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Q:

Oxidation and reduction  in rock weathering


A:

Is a chemical weathering process. Oxidation of a variety of metals occurs within the weathering environment. 

Very common is iron oxidation: Fe2+ Fe3+ + e 

most common Iron Oxides: Goethite and hematite Fe2O3 (specially in the tropics)

Q:

What is Erosion?

A:

Erosion is the displacement of solids (rock, sediment, soil, and other particles) by the agents of currents such as wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms (=bioerosion). 

 

Q:

What is Deposition?

A:

Deposition is the geological process by which material is added to a landform or land mass. Wind and water, as well as sediment gravity flows, transport previously eroded sediment, which, at the loss of enough kinetic energy in the fluid, is deposited, building up layers of sediment. 

Q:

What is Weathering ? 

A:

Weathering  is a process in which soil or rocks are disintegrated into smaller sizes by weather influence and the preparation of the weathered material for erosion processes and soil development (pedogenesis)


Q:

BIOLOGICAL weathering

A:

Can be Physical (roots breaking the rocks)

or Chemical (production of acidic compounds by animals or plants, e.g. acidic root exudation) lichen and mosses create more humid microenvironment which can weak the rock -chemical weathering

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Q:

Explain the model of  PLATE TECTONICS

A:
•The movement of continents relative to each other from convective forces within the elastic Asthenosphere
•7 lithospheric plates that float on viscoelastic Asthenosphere. These plates move due to convective currents. 
•Convective currents are driven by radioactive decay deep in the earth mantle 
Q:

What are the main erosion types? 

Give at least one example for each.

A:

Erosion: The displacement of solids by wind, water or ice

  1. Gravity Erosion: Landslides or avalanches often triggered by rainfall, animals or wind
  2. Water Erosion: Fluvial erosion - Runoff or rivers or splach effect
  3. Wind Erosion: Small particles are lifted and transported to another region
Q:

what is LOESS?

example

A:

Is a type of fine-grained AEOLIAN or WIND BLOWN SEDIMENT that is rich in SILT and has 20% or less of clay and is usually very nutrient-rich and very suitable for agricultural land but is also very prompt to erosion.

Around 10% of global land is covered by loess or similar deposits. 

Examples: Patagonia _ Argentina

Q:

What are the main two types of weathering?
 Name 3 examples of each. 
 Name, if known, places/countries where they occur.

A:

There are two types of weathering: PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL. (biological weathering can be physical (roots) or chemical (root acid exudation). 

PHYSICAL: 

  1. Thermal expansion  (Occurs in deserts (Sahara) due to large variations in temperature between day and night >40ºC variation > Rock heats during day, at night it cracks due to sudden cooling)
  2. Frost disintegration ( Ice forms in the wedges of the rocks -> as water expands (greatest density at 4ºC) = the rock cracks > Occurs in areas where the temperature is always close to the freezing point- Examples: pick of mountains - Andes (over 5000 masl)
  3. Exfoliation: when overlaying materials are removed, the underlying rocks can expand causing fractures parallel to the surface.
  4. Biological Processes: Plant root mechanics. Plants grow on rocks and the roots create pressure on the rocks when they grow in the gaps > increasing the gaps •Example: Amazon Rainforest. Angkorwat, Cambodia (not really in the deserts -> need wet climate)
  5. Salt-crystal growth (haloclasty): Saline solutions flow into the cracks between the rocks, water evaporates and salt is left -> Salt crystals expand as they are heated -> exert pressure on confining rocks (similar to ice wedging) •Most (semi) arid environment _ coast UTah , Malta
  6. Wetting and drying (slacking) > rocks are mechanically disintegrated by the accumulation of successive layers of water molecules in between the mineral grains of a rock. Can be seen as physicochemical and are typical for sedimentary rocks with high content of clay
  7. Hydraulic - when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering (rivers , waterfalls)


CHEMICAL:
  1. Dissolution (=solution) and Carbonation 
    •Water reacts with CO2 to create slightly acidic rainwater (Carbon acid) 
    •Real acid rain occurs when rainwater reacts with sulfur and nitrogen, originates from volcanoes or human fossil fuel burning
    •Rain dissolute the calcium carbonate in carbonate rocks (very alkaline) AND DOLOMITE ROCKS (limestone, dolomite, marble , chalk)
    •As acidity increases the dissolution will increase
    •Examples: Limestone areas in Laos or Vietnam (Karst landscapes)
  2. Hydration (physicochemical) 
    • Rigid attachment of H+ (protons) and OH-ions (hydroxide) to the atoms and molecules of minerals (electrostatic forces
    • Size of the mineral structure is increased, causing stress (weakness)
    • Example: Feldspar
  3. Hydrolysis 
    • Affect silicate minerals. Pure water ionizes slightly and reacts with silicate minerals. Most minerals are weathering that way.
  4. Oxidation and reduction :
    • Oxidation of a variety of metals occurs within the weathering environment. Very common is iron oxidation: Fe2+ Fe3+ + e
  5. Biological (chemical) processes 
•Root hair release chemical acid solutions which attack the rocks chemically 
•Some bacteria which are on the rocks which attack the rocks chemically  (change the chemical characteristics of rocks)


Q:

Describe how Karst landscapes evolve (which weathering process and rock types are characteristic?) 


A:

KARST landscapes are formed in areas  with soluble rocks like limestone predominate and where the overlying soil cover has been removed and the rock is then exposed to chemical weathering. Limestone is a sedimentary rock that has calcium carbonate that is subject to carbonation that is a chemical dissolution that happens when rain falls and picks up CO2 from the atmosphere forming carbonic acid. This carbonic acid combine with the calcium carbonate forming Calcium Bicarbonate that can dissolve in water. This dissolution of the bedrock creates sinkholes, caves (with stalagtites and stalagmites), sinking streams and other features of Karst landscapes.

Examples: Switzerland ( vallorbe Grottes) Vietnam (Ha Long Bay)

Q:

explain Hydration in rock weathering.

A:

Is a physicochemical process that involces the attachment of H+(proton) or HO (- ion) to mineral components increasing the structure and causing stress - weakness.  

Q:

explain Hydrolysis Chemical weathering 

A:

Hydrolysis Chemical weathering process affecting silicate minerals (SixOy). Pure water ionizes slightly and reacts with silicate minerals. Most minerals are weathering that way (more than 90% of the Earth’s crust are silicates; examples are olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, clay minerals, quartz, and feldspars). Example Feldspar: 

KAlSi3O8 + H+ + OH- -> HAlSi3O8 + K+ + OH 

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