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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What type of factors can cause changes in Climate System?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. internal variability ( Changes in the Interplay between the different sub-systems or spheres)
  2. external forcing: Can be extraterrestrial or terrestrial:
  • Extraterrestrial forces: 

- Sun's activity - strength - sun's spots -

- Earth orbit (s. Milankovitch). 

- Other (asteroids, meteorites and cosmic rays)

- Asteroids

- Cosmic rays

              

  • Terrestrial forces: 

- Plate tectonics > topography affects climate patterns 

     - Volcanism – eruptions lead to warming or cooling due to emission of aerosols/ashes
- Anthropogenic changes due to GHG emissions (Potentially most important impact since early 20th century)    Should human beings be considered external forcing?...

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain  Global Conveyer belt
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The global conveyer belt is a system of ocean currents that transport water with heat/energy and nutrients around the world. 
Is a 1000-year cycle  movement of the whole ocean circulation, driven by winds and the THC thermohaline circulation
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the Milankovitch theory?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Milankovitch explained changes in the climate in the Quaternary (= glacial and interglacial periods / Ice Ages (last 2.6mn years)). His reasons can be explained in two interconnected arguments: 
- the movement of the earth's orbit (due to three main factors/processes)

- the summer's strength in the northern hemisphere

EARTH'S ORBIT: 

1. Eccentricity
•How much the orbit deviates from a perfect circle (ellipse)
2. Obliquity
•Axial tilt (between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees)
-> Lower obliquity leads to lower radiation in the polar regions
3. Precession
•Change in the orientation of the earth axis, not the angle itself, this causes wobbles in earth’s axis (called nutation)
•This causes changes in insolation leading to higher insolation in northern hemisphere and lower insolation in southern hemisphere in January and July

STRENGHT IN SUMMER HEMISPHERE: 

With higher insolation in the northern hemisphere (that concentrates the continental mass) a larger part of ice in Artic pole and the north part of the continents is melted ( ice melts faster over continental areas than over water) reducing the albedo capacity > positive feedback (more radiation is absorbed by the Earth's surface increasing the temperature which leads to more melting,  releasing of green gas effects (permafrost) > and higher temperature).


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the TROPOSPHERE?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Is the lowest layer of the atmosphere that contains about 80% of the total mass of the atmosphere and is where the climatic phenomena take place.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Greenhouse gas effect

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Naturally occurring process heating the earth’s surface and atmosphere
•Atmospheric gases such as CO2, water vapor and methane absorb and reemit long wave radiation emitted from earth surface
•Average temp. of earth would be -18 degrees instead of 15 degrees without greenhouse effect

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain SUNSPOTS 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Sunspots are dark spots on the suns surface. 
Dark and cool in the center, but with intense magnetic activity.
Corelating with higher intensity of solar radiation due to coronal loops (hot and bright outer margins)  
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the difference between weather and climate? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Weather
Current state of the atmosphere at a certain place and time>Precipitation, humidity, temperature, wind 


Climate
Average weather over a long time period at given place (30 yrs)

Weather is your mood and climate is your personality
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Principle of Thermohaline Circulation (THC)

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Thermo = TemperatureHaline = Salt 

Thermohaline Circulation THC is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by changes in density that depend on both salinity and temperature in the masses of water. 

THC along with global wind currents power the Global Conveyer belt = a system of ocean currents that transport water (with heat/energy and nutrients around the world)  1000-year cycle  movement of the whole ocean circulation, driven by winds and the thermohaline circulation

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Upwelling: cause and effect
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Wind  driven movement of dense cool and nutrient rich water from the bottom to the top, replacing warmer surface water.

Important because :
  • Creates very organically productive areas
  • Accounts for 50% of global marine productivity (fisheries)
  • High biodiversity

Coastal upwelling: strong winds blow away warm upper water which is constantly replace by cooler water below 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Tipping points in the global climate system

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
•The Greenland Ice Sheet, which could raise sea level 20 feet if it melts.
•Arctic sea ice, which is critical for reflecting the sun's energy back into space but is disappearing as the planet warms.
•Boreal forests, which would release more CO2 than they absorb if they die and decay or burn.
•Permafrost, which releases methane and other greenhouse gases as it thaws. 
•The Atlantic Overturning Circulation, a key ocean current, which would shift global weather patterns if it slowed down or stopped. 
•The Amazon rainforest, which could flip from a net absorber of greenhouse gases to a major emitter.
•Warm-water corals, which will die on a large scale as the ocean warms, affecting commercial and subsistence fisheries.
•The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which would raise sea level by at least 10 feet if it melted entirely and is already threatened
•Parts of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that would also raise sea level significantly if they melted.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

explain CORIOLIS FORCE

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
•The force causing wind to shift due to earth rotation and inertia. THe Earth rotates faster at the equator than at the poles ( because the planet is wider at the equator). 

There is a deflection caused due to air flowing from a region that is moving faster to other that is slower.

•Wind moves to the right from the pole on the northern hemisphere
•Wind moves to the left on the southern hemisphere
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why the solar constant (amount of irradiation received by the Earth) is not constant in the course of one year ?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Due to the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit with the resulting varying distance from the sun, the irradiance fluctuates by about 6.9% during a year from ~1,420 W/m2 in early January [Perihelion] to
~1,325 W/m2 [Aphelion] in early July
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

What type of factors can cause changes in Climate System?

A:
  1. internal variability ( Changes in the Interplay between the different sub-systems or spheres)
  2. external forcing: Can be extraterrestrial or terrestrial:
  • Extraterrestrial forces: 

- Sun's activity - strength - sun's spots -

- Earth orbit (s. Milankovitch). 

- Other (asteroids, meteorites and cosmic rays)

- Asteroids

- Cosmic rays

              

  • Terrestrial forces: 

- Plate tectonics > topography affects climate patterns 

     - Volcanism – eruptions lead to warming or cooling due to emission of aerosols/ashes
- Anthropogenic changes due to GHG emissions (Potentially most important impact since early 20th century)    Should human beings be considered external forcing?...

Q:
Explain  Global Conveyer belt
A:
The global conveyer belt is a system of ocean currents that transport water with heat/energy and nutrients around the world. 
Is a 1000-year cycle  movement of the whole ocean circulation, driven by winds and the THC thermohaline circulation
Q:
What is the Milankovitch theory?

A:
Milankovitch explained changes in the climate in the Quaternary (= glacial and interglacial periods / Ice Ages (last 2.6mn years)). His reasons can be explained in two interconnected arguments: 
- the movement of the earth's orbit (due to three main factors/processes)

- the summer's strength in the northern hemisphere

EARTH'S ORBIT: 

1. Eccentricity
•How much the orbit deviates from a perfect circle (ellipse)
2. Obliquity
•Axial tilt (between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees)
-> Lower obliquity leads to lower radiation in the polar regions
3. Precession
•Change in the orientation of the earth axis, not the angle itself, this causes wobbles in earth’s axis (called nutation)
•This causes changes in insolation leading to higher insolation in northern hemisphere and lower insolation in southern hemisphere in January and July

STRENGHT IN SUMMER HEMISPHERE: 

With higher insolation in the northern hemisphere (that concentrates the continental mass) a larger part of ice in Artic pole and the north part of the continents is melted ( ice melts faster over continental areas than over water) reducing the albedo capacity > positive feedback (more radiation is absorbed by the Earth's surface increasing the temperature which leads to more melting,  releasing of green gas effects (permafrost) > and higher temperature).


Q:

What is the TROPOSPHERE?

A:

Is the lowest layer of the atmosphere that contains about 80% of the total mass of the atmosphere and is where the climatic phenomena take place.

Q:
Greenhouse gas effect

A:
Naturally occurring process heating the earth’s surface and atmosphere
•Atmospheric gases such as CO2, water vapor and methane absorb and reemit long wave radiation emitted from earth surface
•Average temp. of earth would be -18 degrees instead of 15 degrees without greenhouse effect

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Explain SUNSPOTS 
A:
Sunspots are dark spots on the suns surface. 
Dark and cool in the center, but with intense magnetic activity.
Corelating with higher intensity of solar radiation due to coronal loops (hot and bright outer margins)  
Q:
What is the difference between weather and climate? 

A:
Weather
Current state of the atmosphere at a certain place and time>Precipitation, humidity, temperature, wind 


Climate
Average weather over a long time period at given place (30 yrs)

Weather is your mood and climate is your personality
Q:

Principle of Thermohaline Circulation (THC)

A:

Thermo = TemperatureHaline = Salt 

Thermohaline Circulation THC is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by changes in density that depend on both salinity and temperature in the masses of water. 

THC along with global wind currents power the Global Conveyer belt = a system of ocean currents that transport water (with heat/energy and nutrients around the world)  1000-year cycle  movement of the whole ocean circulation, driven by winds and the thermohaline circulation

Q:

Upwelling: cause and effect
A:
Wind  driven movement of dense cool and nutrient rich water from the bottom to the top, replacing warmer surface water.

Important because :
  • Creates very organically productive areas
  • Accounts for 50% of global marine productivity (fisheries)
  • High biodiversity

Coastal upwelling: strong winds blow away warm upper water which is constantly replace by cooler water below 
Q:

Tipping points in the global climate system

A:
•The Greenland Ice Sheet, which could raise sea level 20 feet if it melts.
•Arctic sea ice, which is critical for reflecting the sun's energy back into space but is disappearing as the planet warms.
•Boreal forests, which would release more CO2 than they absorb if they die and decay or burn.
•Permafrost, which releases methane and other greenhouse gases as it thaws. 
•The Atlantic Overturning Circulation, a key ocean current, which would shift global weather patterns if it slowed down or stopped. 
•The Amazon rainforest, which could flip from a net absorber of greenhouse gases to a major emitter.
•Warm-water corals, which will die on a large scale as the ocean warms, affecting commercial and subsistence fisheries.
•The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which would raise sea level by at least 10 feet if it melted entirely and is already threatened
•Parts of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that would also raise sea level significantly if they melted.
Q:

explain CORIOLIS FORCE

A:
•The force causing wind to shift due to earth rotation and inertia. THe Earth rotates faster at the equator than at the poles ( because the planet is wider at the equator). 

There is a deflection caused due to air flowing from a region that is moving faster to other that is slower.

•Wind moves to the right from the pole on the northern hemisphere
•Wind moves to the left on the southern hemisphere
Q:
Why the solar constant (amount of irradiation received by the Earth) is not constant in the course of one year ?
A:
Due to the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit with the resulting varying distance from the sun, the irradiance fluctuates by about 6.9% during a year from ~1,420 W/m2 in early January [Perihelion] to
~1,325 W/m2 [Aphelion] in early July
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