Underground Mine Design at Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Underground mine design an der Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN


Define Shrinkage Stoping!


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Vertical overhand mining method without support
  • Stopes are mined upwards in horizontal slices
  • Broken ore partly stays in the stope as working floor
  • Use in tight veins (Adern) and other steep (steil) deposits, for example in gold and metal mining
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name Requirements for Shrinkage Stoping!

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Ore body should be steep (60°-90°)
  • Narrow to moderately wide (Breite) 1 – 30 m
  • Ore body should have regular dip and boundaries (Abgrenzung)
  • Ore and surrounding rock should be strong
  • Ore should not pack
  • Ore should not oxidize or be subject to spontaneous combustion (Selbstentzündung)
  • Ore grade should be high and uniformly distributed (gleichmäßig verteilt)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the Development of Shrinkage Stoping

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Construction of main haulage levels (Transportebene)
    1. Vertical distance between levels 60 – 180 m
  • Construction of drifts in the ore body at the wished spacing for the dimension of the stope
  • Construction of an extraction drift parallel to the strike (Streichen) of the ore body in the footwall
  • Construction of draw points and cross cuts connecting the stope and the extraction drift
  • Construction of raises (Erhöhungen) between levels for ventilation
  • Drifts are usually driven using conventional drilling and blasting
  • Raises can be driven conventionally with drilling and blasting or with raise boring machines
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN


Describe Drilling and Blasting in Shrinkage Stoping!


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Drill holes are drilled upwards
  • Drilling is done using hand-held drills, in wider stopes using stope jumbos
  • Drill holes are charged with ANFO, gels or slurries
  • 30-40% of the material can be drawn from the stope due to the swell
  • 60-70% of the material remains in the stope and is used as a working floor and as support for the walls
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN


Describe the Drawing (Entnahme) of Ore in Shrinkage Stoping!


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Ore freely flows to the draw point because of gravity
  • Ore is taken from the draw points using LHDs
  • Ore is hauled to the shaft using LHDs, trucks, trains or conveyor belts
  • Drawing has to be done in a way to ensure that the level of the ore in the stope is at about 2 m below the face
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN


Describe the Stope Drawdown in Shrinkage Stoping!


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Drawdown starts when the stope reaches the final dimensions
  • Drawing must be done evenly (gleichmäßig) to avoid dilution 
  • Hung-up stopes are dangerous and can be washed down with water or broken up using explosives
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN


Name Advantages and Disadvantages of Shrinkage Stoping!


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Advantages:
    1. Moderate to small-scale production
    2. Ore is drawn by gravity
    3. Low capital investment due to little need for equipment
    4. No need for ground support
    5. Good recovery (75 – 85%) and little dilution (<10%)
    6. Moderate stope development
  • Disadvantages:
    1. Low to moderate productivity (5 – 15 t per employee-shift)
    2. Labor intensive and difficult to mechanize
    3. Fairly high mining cost (relative cost 45%)
    4. Dangerous working conditions
    5. Much of the ore is locked up in the adit, possibility of packing etc.
    6. Fair selectivity
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the most used mining methods? Name them.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Unsupported mining methods

  • Room & Pillar
  • Stope & Pillar
  • Shrinkage Stoping
  • Sublevel Stoping
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the most important factors to choose a mining method?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • spatial (räumlich) characteristics of deposit
    •  size, shape, attitude (lage), depth
  •  geologic, hydrolocic conditions
    • mineralogy, chemical compostion, structure, planes of weakness (schwachstelle), uniformity, alteration (verwitterung?), weathering, groundwater
  • geotechnical properties
    • elastic properties, plastic or viscoelastic behavior, stress, consolidation, compaction, competence, other physical properties
  • economic considerations
    • reserve, production rate, mine life, cost comparison,
  • technological factors
    • mine recovery, dilution, flexibility, selectivity, concentraion or dispersion of working, capital, labor, mechanization intensity
  • environmental concerns
    • ground control subsidence, atmospheric control, work force
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which are the cheapest mining methods, which are the most expensive (relative mining costs)? Name them from high to low!

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • 100% square-set stoping (supported)
  • 70% stull stoping (supported)
  • 55% cut & fill (supported)
  • 45% Shrinkage stoping (unsupported)
  • 20% sublevel stoping (unsupported)
  • 20% room & pillar (unsupported)
  • 15% sublevel caving (caving)
  • 15% longwall mining (caving)
  • 10% stope & pillar (unsupported)
  • 10% block caving (caving)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name the famoust techniques for selection a mining method.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • by Morrison (1976)
  • by Laubscher (1981)
  • by Nicholas (1981)
  • Boshkov/Wright (1973)
  • Hartmann (1987)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which are the two mining methods to extract ore?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. Surface mining (open pit mining)
  2. Underground mining (below the surface)
Lösung ausblenden
  • 2864 Karteikarten
  • 141 Studierende
  • 44 Lernmaterialien

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Q:


Define Shrinkage Stoping!


A:
  • Vertical overhand mining method without support
  • Stopes are mined upwards in horizontal slices
  • Broken ore partly stays in the stope as working floor
  • Use in tight veins (Adern) and other steep (steil) deposits, for example in gold and metal mining
Q:

Name Requirements for Shrinkage Stoping!

A:
  • Ore body should be steep (60°-90°)
  • Narrow to moderately wide (Breite) 1 – 30 m
  • Ore body should have regular dip and boundaries (Abgrenzung)
  • Ore and surrounding rock should be strong
  • Ore should not pack
  • Ore should not oxidize or be subject to spontaneous combustion (Selbstentzündung)
  • Ore grade should be high and uniformly distributed (gleichmäßig verteilt)
Q:

Describe the Development of Shrinkage Stoping

A:
  • Construction of main haulage levels (Transportebene)
    1. Vertical distance between levels 60 – 180 m
  • Construction of drifts in the ore body at the wished spacing for the dimension of the stope
  • Construction of an extraction drift parallel to the strike (Streichen) of the ore body in the footwall
  • Construction of draw points and cross cuts connecting the stope and the extraction drift
  • Construction of raises (Erhöhungen) between levels for ventilation
  • Drifts are usually driven using conventional drilling and blasting
  • Raises can be driven conventionally with drilling and blasting or with raise boring machines
Q:


Describe Drilling and Blasting in Shrinkage Stoping!


A:
  • Drill holes are drilled upwards
  • Drilling is done using hand-held drills, in wider stopes using stope jumbos
  • Drill holes are charged with ANFO, gels or slurries
  • 30-40% of the material can be drawn from the stope due to the swell
  • 60-70% of the material remains in the stope and is used as a working floor and as support for the walls
Q:


Describe the Drawing (Entnahme) of Ore in Shrinkage Stoping!


A:
  • Ore freely flows to the draw point because of gravity
  • Ore is taken from the draw points using LHDs
  • Ore is hauled to the shaft using LHDs, trucks, trains or conveyor belts
  • Drawing has to be done in a way to ensure that the level of the ore in the stope is at about 2 m below the face
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:


Describe the Stope Drawdown in Shrinkage Stoping!


A:
  • Drawdown starts when the stope reaches the final dimensions
  • Drawing must be done evenly (gleichmäßig) to avoid dilution 
  • Hung-up stopes are dangerous and can be washed down with water or broken up using explosives
Q:


Name Advantages and Disadvantages of Shrinkage Stoping!


A:
  • Advantages:
    1. Moderate to small-scale production
    2. Ore is drawn by gravity
    3. Low capital investment due to little need for equipment
    4. No need for ground support
    5. Good recovery (75 – 85%) and little dilution (<10%)
    6. Moderate stope development
  • Disadvantages:
    1. Low to moderate productivity (5 – 15 t per employee-shift)
    2. Labor intensive and difficult to mechanize
    3. Fairly high mining cost (relative cost 45%)
    4. Dangerous working conditions
    5. Much of the ore is locked up in the adit, possibility of packing etc.
    6. Fair selectivity
Q:

What are the most used mining methods? Name them.

A:

Unsupported mining methods

  • Room & Pillar
  • Stope & Pillar
  • Shrinkage Stoping
  • Sublevel Stoping
Q:

What are the most important factors to choose a mining method?

A:
  • spatial (räumlich) characteristics of deposit
    •  size, shape, attitude (lage), depth
  •  geologic, hydrolocic conditions
    • mineralogy, chemical compostion, structure, planes of weakness (schwachstelle), uniformity, alteration (verwitterung?), weathering, groundwater
  • geotechnical properties
    • elastic properties, plastic or viscoelastic behavior, stress, consolidation, compaction, competence, other physical properties
  • economic considerations
    • reserve, production rate, mine life, cost comparison,
  • technological factors
    • mine recovery, dilution, flexibility, selectivity, concentraion or dispersion of working, capital, labor, mechanization intensity
  • environmental concerns
    • ground control subsidence, atmospheric control, work force
Q:

Which are the cheapest mining methods, which are the most expensive (relative mining costs)? Name them from high to low!

A:
  • 100% square-set stoping (supported)
  • 70% stull stoping (supported)
  • 55% cut & fill (supported)
  • 45% Shrinkage stoping (unsupported)
  • 20% sublevel stoping (unsupported)
  • 20% room & pillar (unsupported)
  • 15% sublevel caving (caving)
  • 15% longwall mining (caving)
  • 10% stope & pillar (unsupported)
  • 10% block caving (caving)
Q:

Name the famoust techniques for selection a mining method.

A:
  • by Morrison (1976)
  • by Laubscher (1981)
  • by Nicholas (1981)
  • Boshkov/Wright (1973)
  • Hartmann (1987)
Q:

Which are the two mining methods to extract ore?

A:
  1. Surface mining (open pit mining)
  2. Underground mining (below the surface)
Underground mine design

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