Underground mine design at Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Underground mine design at the Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola

Exemplary flashcards for Underground mine design at the Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola on StudySmarter:


Define Shrinkage Stoping!


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Name Requirements for Shrinkage Stoping!

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Describe the Development of Shrinkage Stoping

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Exemplary flashcards for Underground mine design at the Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola on StudySmarter:


Describe Drilling and Blasting in Shrinkage Stoping!


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Describe the Drawing (Entnahme) of Ore in Shrinkage Stoping!


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Describe the Stope Drawdown in Shrinkage Stoping!


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Name Advantages and Disadvantages of Shrinkage Stoping!


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Exemplary flashcards for Underground mine design at the Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola on StudySmarter:

What are the most used mining methods? Name them.

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What are the most important factors to choose a mining method?

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Which are the cheapest mining methods, which are the most expensive (relative mining costs)? Name them from high to low!

Exemplary flashcards for Underground mine design at the Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola on StudySmarter:

Name the famoust techniques for selection a mining method.

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Which are the two mining methods to extract ore?

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Exemplary flashcards for Underground mine design at the Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola on StudySmarter:

Underground mine design


Define Shrinkage Stoping!


  • Vertical overhand mining method without support
  • Stopes are mined upwards in horizontal slices
  • Broken ore partly stays in the stope as working floor
  • Use in tight veins (Adern) and other steep (steil) deposits, for example in gold and metal mining

Underground mine design

Name Requirements for Shrinkage Stoping!

  • Ore body should be steep (60°-90°)
  • Narrow to moderately wide (Breite) 1 – 30 m
  • Ore body should have regular dip and boundaries (Abgrenzung)
  • Ore and surrounding rock should be strong
  • Ore should not pack
  • Ore should not oxidize or be subject to spontaneous combustion (Selbstentzündung)
  • Ore grade should be high and uniformly distributed (gleichmäßig verteilt)

Underground mine design

Describe the Development of Shrinkage Stoping

  • Construction of main haulage levels (Transportebene)
    1. Vertical distance between levels 60 – 180 m
  • Construction of drifts in the ore body at the wished spacing for the dimension of the stope
  • Construction of an extraction drift parallel to the strike (Streichen) of the ore body in the footwall
  • Construction of draw points and cross cuts connecting the stope and the extraction drift
  • Construction of raises (Erhöhungen) between levels for ventilation
  • Drifts are usually driven using conventional drilling and blasting
  • Raises can be driven conventionally with drilling and blasting or with raise boring machines

Underground mine design


Describe Drilling and Blasting in Shrinkage Stoping!


  • Drill holes are drilled upwards
  • Drilling is done using hand-held drills, in wider stopes using stope jumbos
  • Drill holes are charged with ANFO, gels or slurries
  • 30-40% of the material can be drawn from the stope due to the swell
  • 60-70% of the material remains in the stope and is used as a working floor and as support for the walls

Underground mine design


Describe the Drawing (Entnahme) of Ore in Shrinkage Stoping!


  • Ore freely flows to the draw point because of gravity
  • Ore is taken from the draw points using LHDs
  • Ore is hauled to the shaft using LHDs, trucks, trains or conveyor belts
  • Drawing has to be done in a way to ensure that the level of the ore in the stope is at about 2 m below the face

Underground mine design


Describe the Stope Drawdown in Shrinkage Stoping!


  • Drawdown starts when the stope reaches the final dimensions
  • Drawing must be done evenly (gleichmäßig) to avoid dilution 
  • Hung-up stopes are dangerous and can be washed down with water or broken up using explosives

Underground mine design


Name Advantages and Disadvantages of Shrinkage Stoping!


  • Advantages:
    1. Moderate to small-scale production
    2. Ore is drawn by gravity
    3. Low capital investment due to little need for equipment
    4. No need for ground support
    5. Good recovery (75 – 85%) and little dilution (<10%)
    6. Moderate stope development
  • Disadvantages:
    1. Low to moderate productivity (5 – 15 t per employee-shift)
    2. Labor intensive and difficult to mechanize
    3. Fairly high mining cost (relative cost 45%)
    4. Dangerous working conditions
    5. Much of the ore is locked up in the adit, possibility of packing etc.
    6. Fair selectivity

Underground mine design

What are the most used mining methods? Name them.

Unsupported mining methods

  • Room & Pillar
  • Stope & Pillar
  • Shrinkage Stoping
  • Sublevel Stoping

Underground mine design

What are the most important factors to choose a mining method?

  • spatial (räumlich) characteristics of deposit
    •  size, shape, attitude (lage), depth
  •  geologic, hydrolocic conditions
    • mineralogy, chemical compostion, structure, planes of weakness (schwachstelle), uniformity, alteration (verwitterung?), weathering, groundwater
  • geotechnical properties
    • elastic properties, plastic or viscoelastic behavior, stress, consolidation, compaction, competence, other physical properties
  • economic considerations
    • reserve, production rate, mine life, cost comparison,
  • technological factors
    • mine recovery, dilution, flexibility, selectivity, concentraion or dispersion of working, capital, labor, mechanization intensity
  • environmental concerns
    • ground control subsidence, atmospheric control, work force

Underground mine design

Which are the cheapest mining methods, which are the most expensive (relative mining costs)? Name them from high to low!

  • 100% square-set stoping (supported)
  • 70% stull stoping (supported)
  • 55% cut & fill (supported)
  • 45% Shrinkage stoping (unsupported)
  • 20% sublevel stoping (unsupported)
  • 20% room & pillar (unsupported)
  • 15% sublevel caving (caving)
  • 15% longwall mining (caving)
  • 10% stope & pillar (unsupported)
  • 10% block caving (caving)

Underground mine design

Name the famoust techniques for selection a mining method.

  • by Morrison (1976)
  • by Laubscher (1981)
  • by Nicholas (1981)
  • Boshkov/Wright (1973)
  • Hartmann (1987)

Underground mine design

Which are the two mining methods to extract ore?

  1. Surface mining (open pit mining)
  2. Underground mining (below the surface)

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