Theory of Epigenetic at RWTH Aachen

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epigenetic marks


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epigenetic marks


DNA methylation

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epigenetic marks


histone modifications


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epigenetic marks

ncRNAs (noncoding RNAs)


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Further epigenetic mechanisms


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Transgenerational „inheritance“ aspect of epigenetics

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Chromatin

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Histones

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how many bp are wrapped around one nucleosome?

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histone tails

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Chromatin modifications

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Definition of Epigenetics

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Exemplary flashcards for Theory of Epigenetic at the RWTH Aachen on StudySmarter:

Theory of Epigenetic


epigenetic marks


  1. DNA methylation
  2. histone modifications
  3. ncRNAs (noncoding RNAs)

Theory of Epigenetic

epigenetic marks


DNA methylation


  1. DNMTs (DNA-Methyltransferase)

Is also associated with gene repression but can have more functions


Theory of Epigenetic


epigenetic marks


histone modifications


  • Chromatin condensation is dependent on histone modifications
  • Associated with gene repression (no binding of transcription factors), how tight or lose the chromatin is wrapped

Theory of Epigenetic


epigenetic marks

ncRNAs (noncoding RNAs)


  • affect gene translation and transcription
  • more noncoding regions than coding regions in the DNA 
  • regarded as critical regulators of gene expression

Theory of Epigenetic


Further epigenetic mechanisms


  • Self-sustaining loops (involving DNA): autoregulation of gene activity via their protein products
  • structural inheritance (not involving genomic DNA): the transmission of cell structures from cell to cell (i.e. membranes, mitochondria), or organism to organism (i.e. prions, cilia, egg factors). 

Theory of Epigenetic

Transgenerational „inheritance“ aspect of epigenetics

  • defined as transmission between generations, but not involving direct exposure
    • involves a germ line transmission between generations without direct exposure to the environmental factor
  • Maternal transgenerational effects:
    • Phenotype in F3
  • Paternal transgenerational effects 
    • Phenotype in F2

Theory of Epigenetic

Chromatin

  • Chromosomes: only visible during mitosis in its very condensed form
  • DNA + Proteins (mainly histones) = Chromatin
  • Typical eukaryotic cells: 2m DNA packed into 10 μm nucleus (diameter) in neurons
  • Huge capacity which has to happen very coordinated > when to pack/ unpack 
  • Chromatin structure is dynamic

Theory of Epigenetic

Histones

  • are the major protein complexes of chromatin
  • Small (100-140 aa) and positively charged > DNA is negatively charged

Theory of Epigenetic

how many bp are wrapped around one nucleosome?

146 bp

Theory of Epigenetic

histone tails


  • reach out of the nucleosome and are mostly subject to posttranslational modifications like acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination etc.


Theory of Epigenetic

Chromatin modifications

  • Canonical histones are replaced by histone variants
  • Histone tails are modified
  • The histone octamer is moved to a new position along the DNA 
  • Can have different effects on gene expression

Theory of Epigenetic

Definition of Epigenetics

  • Not genes are changed -> readability is changed 
  • Definition: Change in the readability of our genes without changing the sequence
  • Still no clear definition

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