Memory And Learning at Radboud University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Memory and Learning an der Radboud University

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What is learning?

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process of acquiring new information 

- outcome of learning is memory 

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How is memory distinguished? 

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sensory memory

STM and WM

LTM 

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Division of LTM 

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declarative memory

- conscious memory of facts we have learned (semantic)  and events we have experienced (episodic) 


nondeclarative memory

- nonconscious memory that cannot be verbally repeated; often expressed through performing procedures (procedural) 

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​Division of learning and memory - What is stage one ?

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Encoding

- processing of incoming information and creating memory traces which are then being stored 


Two separate steps of encoding 

1. acquisition - stimuli are available for processing also known as sensory buffer


2. consolidation - changes in the brain stabilize a memory over time resulting in LTM

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Division of learning and memory - What is stage two?

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storage 

- result of acquisition and consolidaton and represents the permanent record of the information

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Division of learning and memory - What is stage three?

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Retrieval 

- involves accessing stored memory traces which may aid in decision making and change behavior 

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What is anterograde amnesia? 

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- loss of memory for events that occur after a lesion

- results from inability to learn new things

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What is retrograde amnesia? 

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- loss of memory for events that occurred before a lesion 

- sometimes it is temporally limited, extending back only a few seconds 

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What is Ribot's law/ temporal gradient? 

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- concerns retrograde amnesia 

- describes the fact that retrograde amnesia tends to be greatest for most recent events 

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WHat is dementia? 

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umbrella term for loss of cognitive function in different domains 

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How is Alzheimer's characterized?

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- extracellular deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid proteins that negatively affect synapse formation and neuroplasticity

- also characterized by intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (aggregations of microtubules associated with hyper-phosphorylated tau protein)

- medial temporal lobe is affected first, then other neocortices become affected 

- potential cause: reduced cellular responsiveness to insulin in the brain 

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Patient H.M. what did we learn from him? 

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H.M. 

- both medial temporal lobes removed

- could not form new memories 

- struggled with recalling stored memories


Learned

- the more posterior the resection, the worse the amnesia

- only bilateral resection of hippocampus results in severe amnesia 

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  • 27395 Karteikarten
  • 319 Studierende
  • 3 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Memory and Learning Kurs an der Radboud University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is learning?

A:

process of acquiring new information 

- outcome of learning is memory 

Q:

How is memory distinguished? 

A:

sensory memory

STM and WM

LTM 

Q:

Division of LTM 

A:

declarative memory

- conscious memory of facts we have learned (semantic)  and events we have experienced (episodic) 


nondeclarative memory

- nonconscious memory that cannot be verbally repeated; often expressed through performing procedures (procedural) 

Q:

​Division of learning and memory - What is stage one ?

A:

Encoding

- processing of incoming information and creating memory traces which are then being stored 


Two separate steps of encoding 

1. acquisition - stimuli are available for processing also known as sensory buffer


2. consolidation - changes in the brain stabilize a memory over time resulting in LTM

Q:

Division of learning and memory - What is stage two?

A:

storage 

- result of acquisition and consolidaton and represents the permanent record of the information

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Q:

Division of learning and memory - What is stage three?

A:

Retrieval 

- involves accessing stored memory traces which may aid in decision making and change behavior 

Q:

What is anterograde amnesia? 

A:

- loss of memory for events that occur after a lesion

- results from inability to learn new things

Q:

What is retrograde amnesia? 

A:

- loss of memory for events that occurred before a lesion 

- sometimes it is temporally limited, extending back only a few seconds 

Q:

What is Ribot's law/ temporal gradient? 

A:

- concerns retrograde amnesia 

- describes the fact that retrograde amnesia tends to be greatest for most recent events 

Q:

WHat is dementia? 

A:

umbrella term for loss of cognitive function in different domains 

Q:

How is Alzheimer's characterized?

A:

- extracellular deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid proteins that negatively affect synapse formation and neuroplasticity

- also characterized by intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (aggregations of microtubules associated with hyper-phosphorylated tau protein)

- medial temporal lobe is affected first, then other neocortices become affected 

- potential cause: reduced cellular responsiveness to insulin in the brain 

Q:

Patient H.M. what did we learn from him? 

A:

H.M. 

- both medial temporal lobes removed

- could not form new memories 

- struggled with recalling stored memories


Learned

- the more posterior the resection, the worse the amnesia

- only bilateral resection of hippocampus results in severe amnesia 

Memory and Learning

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