Learning, Remembering, Forgetting at Radboud University | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe how a conditioned compensatory response develops.

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Expectations about the outcome of a stimulus lead us to do certain behaviours to compensate for any consequences (such as Daan lowering the water level of the pool to prevent it from over floating when it starts raining; dogs decrease in heart rate in anticipation of adrenaline increasing heart rate).  

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Extinction does not equal unlearning. Explain.

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Extinction means the learned response is not gone; rather, it is suppressed, or unexpressed. 

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Evidence that extinction does not involve the total loss of what was previously learned comes from studies of

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rapid reaquisition. 

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Extinction

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A previously acquired association becomes diminished through repeated presentation of the CS in the absence of the US.

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Blocking effect

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A two-phase training paradigm in which prior conditioning of one cue (e.g., light) blocks later learning of second cue (e.g., tone) when the two are paired: cues appear to compete with each other for associative strength.  

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name the fundamental difference between classical versus operant conditioning. 
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In classical conditioning, the outcome (US) follows the stimulus (CS) whether or not a learned response (CR) is performed. In operant conditioning, the outcome (O) follows the discriminative stimulus (SD) only if a particular response (R) is performed. 
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What are similarities between classical versus operant conditioning?
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1. Negatively accelerated learning curve (rapid decrease that levels off).
2. Extinction possible (learned responses extinguish if no longer followed by outcome). 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Identify the three components to operant conditioning. How are they associated with one another?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Discriminative stimulus (e.g., whistling or dark clouds)
Response (birds arriving, taking umbrella)
Outcome (eating crumbs, staying dry) 
The SD is associated with the R; the R is associated with the O. If the R leads to desirable O then the SD-R association is strengthened. 
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Name varieties of classical conditioning.

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1. auntonomic/ physiological such as skin conductance or immunological responses

2. skeletal such as eyeblink or knee jerk

3. motivations and emotions such as fear, sexual arousal, and evaluative conditioning

4. cognitions


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Extinction does not mean the unlearning of an association. Rather it means ...
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Learning of something new which is highly context dependent. 
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How has it been shown that there is semantic memory in non-humans?
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Radial arm maze: developing rule that food can always be found in specific location in specific environment. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Can non-humans have episodic memory? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Episodic memory: What? When? Where? 
Demonstrate in non-humans is complex but possible: blue bird burying worms and nuts in tray. 

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Q:

Describe how a conditioned compensatory response develops.

A:

Expectations about the outcome of a stimulus lead us to do certain behaviours to compensate for any consequences (such as Daan lowering the water level of the pool to prevent it from over floating when it starts raining; dogs decrease in heart rate in anticipation of adrenaline increasing heart rate).  

Q:

Extinction does not equal unlearning. Explain.

A:

Extinction means the learned response is not gone; rather, it is suppressed, or unexpressed. 

Q:

Evidence that extinction does not involve the total loss of what was previously learned comes from studies of

A:

rapid reaquisition. 

Q:

Extinction

A:

A previously acquired association becomes diminished through repeated presentation of the CS in the absence of the US.

Q:

Blocking effect

A:

A two-phase training paradigm in which prior conditioning of one cue (e.g., light) blocks later learning of second cue (e.g., tone) when the two are paired: cues appear to compete with each other for associative strength.  

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Q:
Name the fundamental difference between classical versus operant conditioning. 
A:
In classical conditioning, the outcome (US) follows the stimulus (CS) whether or not a learned response (CR) is performed. In operant conditioning, the outcome (O) follows the discriminative stimulus (SD) only if a particular response (R) is performed. 
Q:
What are similarities between classical versus operant conditioning?
A:
1. Negatively accelerated learning curve (rapid decrease that levels off).
2. Extinction possible (learned responses extinguish if no longer followed by outcome). 
Q:
Identify the three components to operant conditioning. How are they associated with one another?
A:
Discriminative stimulus (e.g., whistling or dark clouds)
Response (birds arriving, taking umbrella)
Outcome (eating crumbs, staying dry) 
The SD is associated with the R; the R is associated with the O. If the R leads to desirable O then the SD-R association is strengthened. 
Q:

Name varieties of classical conditioning.

A:

1. auntonomic/ physiological such as skin conductance or immunological responses

2. skeletal such as eyeblink or knee jerk

3. motivations and emotions such as fear, sexual arousal, and evaluative conditioning

4. cognitions


Q:
Extinction does not mean the unlearning of an association. Rather it means ...
A:
Learning of something new which is highly context dependent. 
Q:
How has it been shown that there is semantic memory in non-humans?
A:
Radial arm maze: developing rule that food can always be found in specific location in specific environment. 
Q:
Can non-humans have episodic memory? 
A:
Episodic memory: What? When? Where? 
Demonstrate in non-humans is complex but possible: blue bird burying worms and nuts in tray. 

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