Development Of Antisocial Behaviour at Radboud University | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Is physical aggression a stable trait? Does this vary over time or not?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

It varies:

• Higher stability in adulthood (.70) than in childhood-adolescence (.35)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Indicate how physical aggression develops.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Two developmental processes:

Cumulative continuity = consequences of aggressive behaviours add up over time (e.g., fighting → bad grades → increased anger and hostility)
Interactional continuity = aggression maintained through responses elicited in others (e.g., aggressive children only accepted by other aggressive children → environment where aggressive behaviour is accepted and reinforced)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

There is life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour. Explain the differences.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Life-course persistent (associated with long-term escalation path)
• Early cognitive and affective deficits, high-risk family environment


Adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour pattern
• No early deficits, normal family environment
• Use of aggressive behaviour out of discomfort about experiencing maturity gap (feel like they should be
allowed what adults are allowed to do, e.g., drink, smoke, stay out)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does physical aggression typically develop over time (from infant to adolescent/adult)?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Less physical aggression over time: after 2,5 years use of aggressive behaviours declines for most children


Trajectories of violence between ages 14 and 24
• Most adolescents (73%) are nonviolent or decreasingly violent over time
22% peak of aggression at adolescence
5%: peak of aggression in late adolescence


Steady decline in the frequency of use of physical aggression from preschool years
to old age
• For some adolescents there is a peak in the seriousness of their physical aggression
(e.g., death of victim more likely for adolescents than toddlers)
• Most children learn alternatives to physical aggression before school entry

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does relational aggression develop in early childhood?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Two trajectories:

• 1/3 increase of indirect aggression
• 2/3 stay at low levels
High variability of individual trajectories (rapid increase vs. little or no change over time)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe and explain the gender differences in the development/prevalence of (relational) aggression in children.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Meta-analysis:
• On average boys score higher than girls on direct aggression
Small gender difference on indirect aggression
→ indirect aggression more prevalent than direct aggression in girls
Boys show similar levels of direct and indirect aggression


Explanations for higher prevalence of physical aggression in men than in women:

Hormonal explanations (not so much evidence)

  • Testosterone levels, which is linked to physical aggression, higher in men
Evolutionary functions of boys’ physical aggression

  • Male warrior hypothesis

    • Evolution has favoured ‘tribal brain’ (due to coalitions with other men to fight and protect resources) → increased willingness to engage in intergroup conflict

    • In line with higher competitiveness, higher likelihood to discriminate against outgroups and more eagerness to defend group of men
Evolutionary function of girls’ indirect aggression

  • Competition over mates

    • Derogating/intimidate competitors (low fidelity)

    • Less risky than physical aggression
Culture/society as a mean: gender norms

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name the two types of aggression and indicate how they relate to the motivation and outcomes of aggression.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Proactive vs. reactive aggression
• High correlation (.68) between proactive and reactive motivations, despite being conceptually different


• Correlation with maladjustment: Reactive aggression > proactive aggression

  • Reactive aggression uniquely predicts internalising problems, emotional dysregulation, ADHD-type symptoms, delinquent behaviours, little prosocial behaviours, low peer status, peer victimisation


• Associations with status

  • Proactive → high popularity

  •  Reactive → low popularity


Proactive aggression mostly engaged in to reach goals like access to resources

  • E.g., food, toys, social (e.g., being cared for, friendship)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the social interactionist model and explain how this is in line with proactive aggression and its relations.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

= controlling behaviour of others through different strategies
Noncoercive strategies like social influence, ingratiation, or gentle persuasion
Coercive strategies like aggression and intimidation

proactive aggression = coercive strategy

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the resource control theory and how it relates to aggression.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• In field of proactive aggression between youth, similar to social interactionist model
• Hawley (1999):

  • Prosocial strategies (goal is getting what one wants by acting friendly towards others, not truly prosocial behaviour because aim of benefiting other person is missing)

  • Coercive strategies (controlling others)
Resource control subtypes

  • Prosocial controller

  • Coercive controller

  • Bi-strategic controller

  • Use of both strategies (noncoercive and coercive) and knowing when to use which = most effective:

    • Most influence in social group and best access to resources = best outcome
Non-controller

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Indicate the two main kinds of factors in which individuals can differ regarding the use of aggression and name their factors/processes.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cognitive factors/influences
Social information processing (SIP)

Rumination (opposite of dissipation)

Self-control


Affective factors/influences (= emotions and feelings)
Temperament

Self-esteem (‘= self-evaluation) and narcissism

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain how social information processing (SIP) works. Name the stages and use the words database, feedback loop, hostile attribution bias, benign attribution bias.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Database = internal working models (e.g., beliefs and expectations about the social world)
• Shaped by previous experiences and encountered information/norms


Feedback loop with database after each step


Step 1: noticing cue
Attention for certain cues fuelled by expectations/emotional state of the child

Older studies: aggressive children …Have a greater recollection of hostile cue, …Prefer to look at hostile cues, …Recall more cues that are proximal to a provocation (limited due to measurement)
Eye tracking studies: aggressive children …Look longer at non-hostile cues, …Wait longer before looking at the perpetrator
Schema-based interpretation is quickly made, while attention directed toward schema-
inconsistent/unexpected info


Step 2: interpreting the cue

  • Hostile attribution bias

    • Vignette measures (stories) and situational experiments

aggressive children interpret other children’s behaviour as hostile, which predicts future
aggression

• Especially prevalent in ambiguous situations (fill blanks with knowledge/experiences from database)


Step 3: clarification of goals (in the situation)

• Already existing goals and/or elicited by social stimuli
• Arousal states → some intentions weakened, while other impulses strengthened


Step 4: search for response options
• Aggressive children come up with …Less options and …More aggressive options
Accessibility: number of options available, frequent/recent ‘activation’ of a response


Step 5: evaluating and selecting response options (consequences)

Self-efficacy = extent to which one is convinced that one possesses skills to perform an action successfully
• Aggressive children more confident to successfully implement aggressive behaviours
 Response-outcome expectancy = aggressive children more confident that they receive tangible rewards
for aggressive behaviour and that negative treatment is unlikely


Step 6: behavioural enactment
Skills (needed to perform behaviour)

• Poor interpersonal, academic, and work skills in delinquent youth
• Unlikely to use helpful/adaptive strategies due to little self-efficacy in those


Benign attribution bias
Prosocial behaviourmore benign (= less hostile) attributions

• Absence of aggression /= engagement in prosocial behaviour

positive interpretation bias for prosocial children and negative interpretation bias for aggressive
children

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are early affective and behavioural indicators of aggression later in life (5 to 8 months old)?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Use of physical force in interactions
• Expression of anger

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Is physical aggression a stable trait? Does this vary over time or not?

A:

It varies:

• Higher stability in adulthood (.70) than in childhood-adolescence (.35)

Q:

Indicate how physical aggression develops.

A:

Two developmental processes:

Cumulative continuity = consequences of aggressive behaviours add up over time (e.g., fighting → bad grades → increased anger and hostility)
Interactional continuity = aggression maintained through responses elicited in others (e.g., aggressive children only accepted by other aggressive children → environment where aggressive behaviour is accepted and reinforced)

Q:

There is life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour. Explain the differences.

A:

Life-course persistent (associated with long-term escalation path)
• Early cognitive and affective deficits, high-risk family environment


Adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour pattern
• No early deficits, normal family environment
• Use of aggressive behaviour out of discomfort about experiencing maturity gap (feel like they should be
allowed what adults are allowed to do, e.g., drink, smoke, stay out)

Q:

How does physical aggression typically develop over time (from infant to adolescent/adult)?

A:

• Less physical aggression over time: after 2,5 years use of aggressive behaviours declines for most children


Trajectories of violence between ages 14 and 24
• Most adolescents (73%) are nonviolent or decreasingly violent over time
22% peak of aggression at adolescence
5%: peak of aggression in late adolescence


Steady decline in the frequency of use of physical aggression from preschool years
to old age
• For some adolescents there is a peak in the seriousness of their physical aggression
(e.g., death of victim more likely for adolescents than toddlers)
• Most children learn alternatives to physical aggression before school entry

Q:

How does relational aggression develop in early childhood?

A:

Two trajectories:

• 1/3 increase of indirect aggression
• 2/3 stay at low levels
High variability of individual trajectories (rapid increase vs. little or no change over time)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Describe and explain the gender differences in the development/prevalence of (relational) aggression in children.

A:

Meta-analysis:
• On average boys score higher than girls on direct aggression
Small gender difference on indirect aggression
→ indirect aggression more prevalent than direct aggression in girls
Boys show similar levels of direct and indirect aggression


Explanations for higher prevalence of physical aggression in men than in women:

Hormonal explanations (not so much evidence)

  • Testosterone levels, which is linked to physical aggression, higher in men
Evolutionary functions of boys’ physical aggression

  • Male warrior hypothesis

    • Evolution has favoured ‘tribal brain’ (due to coalitions with other men to fight and protect resources) → increased willingness to engage in intergroup conflict

    • In line with higher competitiveness, higher likelihood to discriminate against outgroups and more eagerness to defend group of men
Evolutionary function of girls’ indirect aggression

  • Competition over mates

    • Derogating/intimidate competitors (low fidelity)

    • Less risky than physical aggression
Culture/society as a mean: gender norms

Q:

Name the two types of aggression and indicate how they relate to the motivation and outcomes of aggression.

A:

Proactive vs. reactive aggression
• High correlation (.68) between proactive and reactive motivations, despite being conceptually different


• Correlation with maladjustment: Reactive aggression > proactive aggression

  • Reactive aggression uniquely predicts internalising problems, emotional dysregulation, ADHD-type symptoms, delinquent behaviours, little prosocial behaviours, low peer status, peer victimisation


• Associations with status

  • Proactive → high popularity

  •  Reactive → low popularity


Proactive aggression mostly engaged in to reach goals like access to resources

  • E.g., food, toys, social (e.g., being cared for, friendship)

Q:

Describe the social interactionist model and explain how this is in line with proactive aggression and its relations.

A:

= controlling behaviour of others through different strategies
Noncoercive strategies like social influence, ingratiation, or gentle persuasion
Coercive strategies like aggression and intimidation

proactive aggression = coercive strategy

Q:

Describe the resource control theory and how it relates to aggression.

A:

• In field of proactive aggression between youth, similar to social interactionist model
• Hawley (1999):

  • Prosocial strategies (goal is getting what one wants by acting friendly towards others, not truly prosocial behaviour because aim of benefiting other person is missing)

  • Coercive strategies (controlling others)
Resource control subtypes

  • Prosocial controller

  • Coercive controller

  • Bi-strategic controller

  • Use of both strategies (noncoercive and coercive) and knowing when to use which = most effective:

    • Most influence in social group and best access to resources = best outcome
Non-controller

Q:

Indicate the two main kinds of factors in which individuals can differ regarding the use of aggression and name their factors/processes.

A:

Cognitive factors/influences
Social information processing (SIP)

Rumination (opposite of dissipation)

Self-control


Affective factors/influences (= emotions and feelings)
Temperament

Self-esteem (‘= self-evaluation) and narcissism

Q:

Explain how social information processing (SIP) works. Name the stages and use the words database, feedback loop, hostile attribution bias, benign attribution bias.

A:

Database = internal working models (e.g., beliefs and expectations about the social world)
• Shaped by previous experiences and encountered information/norms


Feedback loop with database after each step


Step 1: noticing cue
Attention for certain cues fuelled by expectations/emotional state of the child

Older studies: aggressive children …Have a greater recollection of hostile cue, …Prefer to look at hostile cues, …Recall more cues that are proximal to a provocation (limited due to measurement)
Eye tracking studies: aggressive children …Look longer at non-hostile cues, …Wait longer before looking at the perpetrator
Schema-based interpretation is quickly made, while attention directed toward schema-
inconsistent/unexpected info


Step 2: interpreting the cue

  • Hostile attribution bias

    • Vignette measures (stories) and situational experiments

aggressive children interpret other children’s behaviour as hostile, which predicts future
aggression

• Especially prevalent in ambiguous situations (fill blanks with knowledge/experiences from database)


Step 3: clarification of goals (in the situation)

• Already existing goals and/or elicited by social stimuli
• Arousal states → some intentions weakened, while other impulses strengthened


Step 4: search for response options
• Aggressive children come up with …Less options and …More aggressive options
Accessibility: number of options available, frequent/recent ‘activation’ of a response


Step 5: evaluating and selecting response options (consequences)

Self-efficacy = extent to which one is convinced that one possesses skills to perform an action successfully
• Aggressive children more confident to successfully implement aggressive behaviours
 Response-outcome expectancy = aggressive children more confident that they receive tangible rewards
for aggressive behaviour and that negative treatment is unlikely


Step 6: behavioural enactment
Skills (needed to perform behaviour)

• Poor interpersonal, academic, and work skills in delinquent youth
• Unlikely to use helpful/adaptive strategies due to little self-efficacy in those


Benign attribution bias
Prosocial behaviourmore benign (= less hostile) attributions

• Absence of aggression /= engagement in prosocial behaviour

positive interpretation bias for prosocial children and negative interpretation bias for aggressive
children

Q:

What are early affective and behavioural indicators of aggression later in life (5 to 8 months old)?

A:

• Use of physical force in interactions
• Expression of anger

development of antisocial behaviour

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